Your rooms Logout
Authors Sign In/Up Select UK
FormatsDate PublishedPricePages
Paperback 2016-03-20 $22.95 304
Kindle Edition 2016-03-01 300
Paperback 2013 296
Paperback 1822
Paperback 1803
Paperback 1703
Paperback 1676
Paperback 1672

Have you read this book?
Join the discussion!

Icelandic Herbs and Their Medicinal Uses

By
Published by North Atlantic Books on 2016-03-20
Paperback: $22.95
GARDENING, FAMILY and RELATIONSHIPS, HEALTH and FITNESS, SCIENCE


This beautifully illustrated, full-color guide provides everything readers need to know about the medicinal powers of 90 native herbs of Iceland--85 of which also grow in North America. Anna Rosa Robertsdottir describes the history, uses, harvesting, drying, and storage of the plants, and includes a wealth of detailed instructions for their preparation--including infusions, decoctions, tinctures, and syrups. Generous color photographs of both the leaves and flowers facilitate plant identification, allowing both amateur and professional herbalists to use the guide to full advantage. User-friendly layout, meticulous research, a wealth of detailed information, and an extensive bibliography make this an essential, one-of-a-kind reference for anyone interested in the subject. For each herb, sidebars describe: Habitat Parts used Harvesting Constituents History Action Uses Research Dosage"
(Paperback, 2016-03-20)
Embed ⇩


ASIN: 1623170222
ISBN: 9781623170226
EAN: 9781623170226

SEEN A REVIEW OR FEATURE FOR THIS BOOK? Tell us!

HAVE YOU READ ICELANDIC HERBS AND THEIR MEDICINAL USES? WHAT DID YOU THINK OF IT?

Book cover For novels: minor spoilers are fine, and kind of necessary in order to discuss the book; but do avoid huge spoilers like giving away the ending!
Authors are warmly invited to dive into the conversation.

Read a preview from Icelandic Herbs and Their Medicinal Uses

3D preview available at the top of this page...

Icelandic Herbs and Their Medicinal Uses

Icelandic Herbs and Their Medicinal Uses Anna r'sa r'bertsd'ttir

To the reader This book is intended only to be a guide for self-help and is in no way intended to replace specialist help. The information presented in this book seeks neither to diagnose disease nor to promise a cure. Readers of this book should not self-diagnose a disease or use the herbs for treating serious or chronic illnesses without seeking advice from a qualified medical herbalist or doctor. Do not use herbs, either internally or externally, without first reading the comments under the heading 'Warning? for each herb where applicable. Do not take larger doses than those that are recommended. Always seek professional advice if symptoms do not disappear after a short time. If the intention is to take herbs simultaneously with medication, seek the advice of a medical herbalist before using the herbs. If herbs are collected for medicinal purposes, make sure that the right herbs are picked and do not pick any rare or protected herbs.

Copyright ? 2013, 2016 by Anna R'sa R'bertsd'ttir. All rights reserved. No portion of this book, except for brief review, may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means'electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise'without the written permission of the publisher. For information contact North Atlantic Books. Translated from the Icelandic by Shelagh Smith All photos ? Erling 'lafsson, except page 37 ? Hrafn 'skarsson, pages 133, 134, and 135 ? H'r'ur Kristinsson, pages 3 and 163 ? Shutterstock. Published by Cover photo by Erling 'lafsson North Atlantic Books Cover design by Jasmine Hromjak Berkeley, California Book design by Harri Printed in the United States of America Icelandic Herbs and Their Medicinal Uses is sponsored and published by the Society for the Study of Native Arts and Sciences (dba North Atlantic Books), an educational nonprofit based in Berkeley, California, that collaborates with partners to develop cross-cultural perspectives, nurture holistic views of art, science, the humanities, and healing, and seed personal and global transformation by publishing work on the relationship of body, spirit, and nature. North Atlantic Books? publications are available through most bookstores. For further information, visit our website at www.northatlanticbooks.com or call 800-733-3000. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Anna R'sa R'bertsd'ttir, author. [Anna R'sa grasal'knir og 'slenskar l'kningajurtir. English] Icelandic herbs and their medicinal uses / Anna R'sa R'bertsd'ttir. p. cm. Translation of Anna R'sa grasal'knir og 'slenskar l'kningajurtir: notkun 'eirra, t'nsla og ranns'knir. Reykjav'k : Anna R'sa grasal'knir ehf, 2011. Includes bibliographical references and index. Summary: "A comprehensive guide on Icelandic medicinal herbs, including uses, preparations'such as infusions, decoctions, tinctures, and syrups'harvesting, and drying."'Provided by publisher. ISBN 978-1-62317-022-6 (paperback) ? ISBN 978-1-62317-023-3 (ebook) I. Title. [DNLM: 1. Plants, Medicinal'Iceland. 2. Phytotherapy'Iceland. QV 770 GI3] RS177.I2 615.3'21094912'dc23 2015030994 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 united 21 20 19 18 17 16

Contents Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Uses of Herbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Alpine Bistort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Angelica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Arctic Poppy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Bearberry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Bilberry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Biting Stonecrop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Bladderwrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Bogbean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Butterwort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Caraway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Chickweed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Cold-weather Eyebright . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Coltsfoot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Common Sea-thrift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Couch Grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Cow Parsley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Creeping Thyme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Crowberry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Cuckooflower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Daisy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Dandelion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Devil's Bit Scabious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Downy Birch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Dulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Field Gentian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Fir Clubmoss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Grass of Parnassus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Greater Burnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Greater Plantain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Groundsel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Hawkweed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Heartsease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Heather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Hemp-nettle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Horsetail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Iceland Moss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Irish Moss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Juniper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Kidney Vetch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Knotgrass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Lady's Bedstraw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Lady's Mantle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Large-flowered Wintergreen . . . . . . . 132 Male Fern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Mare's-tail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Marsh Marigold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Meadow Buttercup . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Meadowsweet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Mountain Avens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Nootka Lupine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Northern Dock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Pineappleweed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Polypody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Purging Flax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Purple Marshlocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Red Clover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Ribwort Plantain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Rose Bay Willow Herb . . . . . . . . . . 174 Roseroot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Rowan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Scurvy Grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Sea Mayweed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Self-heal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Sheep's Sorrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Shepherd's Purse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Silverweed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Sorrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Speedwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Spotted Orchid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Stinging Nettle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Stone Bramble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Sundew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Sweet Cicely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Sweet Grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Sweet Vernal Grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Valerian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Water Avens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Water Forget-me-not . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Water Speedwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 White Dead-nettle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Wild Strawberry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Willow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Wood Cranesbill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Yarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 Yellow Rattle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Research Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

Anna R'sa R'bertsd'ttir Photo ? Erinn Graham

ix Foreword The North Country presents a fascinating biological region. In the southern hemisphere continents are widely spread and plant populations have long been isolated. In the north, on the other hand, the continents are close together. This has created a unique biome where plants from Scandinavia to the tip of eastern Siberia, and on to Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland, are closely related, nearly identical, actually identical, or can only be separated through genetic profiles. This region also includes the northern British Isles, the European Alps, the Rocky Mountains, and Appalachia. What this means is that the same herbs or very similar cognates are used throughout this enormous region. It also means that an herbal written about the flora of an isolated island in the north Atlantic is pertinent to herbalists almost everywhere in this bioregion. Another aspect of Northern herbal flora is that there is not so much of it. Unlike the rainforests, where there are thousands of different plant species per acre, in the North Country the sparse amount of flora, the contiguous biological region (supporting cross-pollination), and the short growing season (not supporting as much genetic mutation) have left the plant population smaller (though widespread). The confluence of these factors means that the herbal folk traditions of these regions depend upon pretty much the same herbs. A Viking in Iceland, a Scottish Highlander, an Aleut medicine man, a Native American medicine woman, a Tyrolean healer, even an occasional Chinese herbalist, and many a Western herbalist, are all going to be using an overlapping selection of medicinal plants. This is why two herbalists from Minnesota and Alberta find themselves excitedly reading Icelandic Herbs and providing a foreword for the American edition: we use many of the same plants. We have used these plants in the clinic and have compared notes with other herbalists. We are, therefore, excited to know what the herbal medicine of Iceland can teach us: either by supporting established uses, introducing similar but new ideas, or completely new approaches. We thank the authoress for making her tradition available to us in an enjoyable, readable, informative manner. We have both enjoyed visiting with Anna in person. On a visit to Iceland last summer, Robert'had the opportunity to walk with Anna among the wild Angelica, Rhodiola, and Creeping Thyme'in the pristine countryside. Sharing traditional plant medicine knowledge with another northern'herbalist is truly a blessing and gift. One final word: there is a big difference between an herbal written by a practicing herbalist and'one penned by a 'journalist.' Authenticity rings out in the lines penned by someone who has'used the herbs they are discussing. This is the case in'Icelandic Herbs. 'Matthew Wood, MS (Herbal Medicine), RH (AHG) and Robert Dale Rogers, BSc, RH (AHG)

Acknowledgments Special thanks go to Erling 'lafsson for his uniquely beautiful photographs and immeasurable assistance. Ingrid Markan and Harri have, each in their own way, played a major part in this book and get my best thanks for all their help. Many others were involved in one way or another with the proofreading, and my gratitude goes to all of them for the useful comments and suggestions that I received. Thanks go to Albert Eir'ksson, 'sd's Ragna Einarsd'ttir, 'sd's K'rad'ttir, Dagn? E. Einarsd'ttir, Eva G. 'orvaldsd'ttir, Eyj'lfur Fri'geirsson, Ger'ur Sigtryggs d'ttir, Gu'r'n Ing'lfsd'ttir, Jan Triebel, J'n'na Yngvad'ttir, Mar'a Bj'rg 'g'stsd'ttir, Shelagh Smith, Steinunn Har'ard'ttir, Stein''r Sigur'sson, Sveinn Kjartansson, and ''runn Steinsd'ttir. Special thanks for the English version go to Shelagh Smith and Lowana Veal, both of whom did an excellent job in translating and proofreading.

Introduction Iceland is a small country with a population of about 330,000 people and a relatively short history of herbal medicine. The flora of Iceland consists of about five hundred plants, of which eighty-five are medicinal herbs that are discussed in this book. Most of the medicinal plants are not unique to Iceland they also grow in Europe, North America, and elsewhere in the world. However few of the herbs are not commonly used elsewhere. There are numerous references to medicinal uses of plants in the old sagas of Iceland, but the old texts that are the most accessible nowadays and quoted in this book were published in 1783 and 1830. In these works, the authors often refer to books from Europe, commonly Germany and Norway. When discussing herbal medicine with the older generation of Iceland today there is a collective memory for one herb in particular that people remember their grandmother using, namely Yarrow and mainly in ointments. Other herbs that often get mentioned are those that are also used as food, e.g., Iceland Moss, Dulse, Bilberry, and Crowberry. For decades the only herbalists working in Iceland all belonged to one family, which used the same recipes for well over 100 years. These recipes consisted of various herbs made into a few types of decoctions that were prescribed for all ailments. Some descendants of this family are still practicing in this way today and the ingredients in the decoction are a well-kept family secret. It was not until 1990 with the arrival of an Icelandic herbalist educated in the UK that herbalism started to be recognized again in Iceland. Today there are four herbalists working in Iceland, all educated in the U.K. and none of them with any family history of herbalism. Herbalism was illegal by law until 15 years ago in Iceland. However, herbalists were left to their own devices without any action being taken, before it became legal to practice. Many medicinal herbs that are legal to use both in Europe and the U.S. are illegal in Iceland and use is controlled by the Icelandic Medicines Agency. As a consequence of the above restrictions, I have often had to be quite creative in the use of the few herbs that are easy to collect in Iceland. I have commonly used a number of species that are closely related to well-known medicinal herbs elsewhere that I have found to work in a similar way. Here is an example of a few of them: Creeping Thyme, Sea Mayweed, Downy Birch, Lady's Bedstraw, Northern Dock, and Woolly Willow. Of the medicinal plants in Iceland only about 15'20 are common enough to wildcraft in any quantities without over-harvesting. It is easy to wildcraft common herbs in Iceland as there is a lot of wilderness within easy access and very little pollution. However it is not common to find forests in Iceland it is a country composed of heaths, mountains, and marshland with the types of herbs that grow in these conditions. The season to harvest in Iceland is very short, spring comes late and autumn early. Since the growing period is so short in Iceland there has been some speculation that the medicinal herbs are more potent here than elsewhere. This book is written primarily with the general public in mind because knowledge of medicinal herbs belongs to everyone and not to the chosen few. In my work as a medical herbalist for the past two decades, I have held many courses and have clearly found that there is a growing interest in Icelandic medicinal herbs. I have always felt it important to inform people about Icelandic herbs because it is easy to collect common medicinal herbs in Iceland, which are more often than not categorized as weeds. Medicinal herbs can be used as daily preventives and refreshments, and because individuals should take responsibility for their own health, medicinal herbs can become part of one's daily food intake. Herbal medicine is the oldest form of medicine and is above all built on experience passed on from person to person, although in recent decades scientists have started to research medicinal herbs more thoroughly. In this book I have chosen to take quotes from ancient Icelandic works to give the reader an insight into how medicinal herbs were used in Iceland centuries ago. More often than not, there are similarities between how herbs were used 200 years ago and how they are used nowadays, though this statement does not hold true for every herb. First, I present information on the harvesting, drying, and storage of medicinal herbs, together with instructions on how to make use of herbs. I sought a way of explaining in simple terms the use of medicinal herbs at home. In the Glossary at the back of this book, explanations are given for the most common constituents and terminology used in medicinal herbalism. Erling 'lafsson, an entomologist at the Icelandic Institute of Natural History, took most of the photographs in the book. Through much dedication and passion he strove to take exceptionally clear and distinctive photographs so that the public would easily be able to identify and distinguish the herbs. The importance of good photographs for a book such as this is indisputable, so I was very fortunate to find Erling for the project and I can never thank him enough for his wonderful contribution.

Th is book contains a summary of the research that has been done on medicinal herbs found in Iceland, but the summary is by no means exhaustive. Most of the research was not done in Iceland, since most species of medicinal herbs similar to those in Iceland are found in other countries as well. I have not evaluated the quality or results of the research'that would provide material for many more books. Th e purpose of summarizing the research that has been done on Icelandic medicinal herbs is to give the reader a chance to fi nd out more about the research that awakens their special interest. Each herb has a detailed bibliography, but most research was found in open databases on the internet and is easy to access. Of special interest is the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database, which keeps information on thousands of research papers on medicinal herbs. Th e website is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /guide/. Much of the research was done on isolated constituents of the medicinal herbs in question and not on individual plant parts. If the research was done on a blend of some herbs, this is stated. Th e fi rst phase of research on herbs generally consists of in vitro tests in test tubes, and if circumstances call for it further research is done on animals (in vivo testing). Th e last phase of research is clinical trials on humans. In this book it is stated whether or not the research is a clinical trial if the type of research is not specifi ed, this means that it is either in vitro or in vivo testing. It should be remembered that the results of in vitro or in vivo research cannot generally be transferred to humans. However, they do give a good indication of the eff ects of herbs, which could later lead to further research on people. Scientifi c research studies vary greatly in quality, so the results should always be viewed with caution. In clinical trials, for example, the size of the experimental groups matters a great deal, and the same applies to whether or not a placebo has been used. Th e quality of the herbs themselves is also important as this can diff er greatly as well. It is my deepest hope that this book will awaken interest in the treasures that Icelandic nature holds, while also increasing the knowledge and use of medicinal herbs by individuals so they can improve their general health.

Harvesting When harvesting, it is important to be completely familiar with the herb that is being harvested, as many herbs look similar and it is easy to confuse them. A good plant handbook with good photos and descriptions of the herbs will make identification easier when harvesting. Damage might result if the wrong herb is collected and then used, so no one should pick herbs without knowing exactly what they are doing. Icelandic nature is sensitive and many herbs grow only in specific places or are very rare therefore, everyone should be careful and harvest in moderation. Be aware that some herbs are protected and may not be picked at all. (See the list of protected herbs on the next page.) Some herbs are not actually rare but are, however, very small and grow sparsely and not in broad swaths. A good example of this is Butterwort, which is endangered in many countries though it is common in Iceland. It is not recommended to collect Large-flowered Wintergreen, Sundew, Kidney Vetch, or Greater Burnet because of their rarity. It should also be kept in mind that some herbs take a long time to grow (e.g., Roseroot and Iceland Moss), and this should be taken into consideration when picking them. When harvesting herbs that are prolific and grow in broad swaths, the general rule is to never harvest more than one-third of the herb in each place. Another point to keep in mind when harvesting, is to get permission from the landowner if the herbs are not on public prop erty. When harvesting medicinal herbs, special care must be taken not to pick herbs from polluted areas. Do not pick where insecticides or chemical fertilizers have been used, alongside roads or other areas where there is traffic, or

close to factories and other industrial areas. The same applies to harvesting from beaches. Iceland Moss, for example, is extremely sensitive to all pollution. If herbs are contaminated by heavy metals, they can cause toxicity with internal use. When harvesting, it is important to use either a pair of scissors or a knife and to avoid pulling or breaking the herb. Some herbs (e.g., Creeping Thyme), break up readily with the roots if they are pulled, so it is extremely important to cut the herb carefully and not break it off. Herbs are best collected in a basket, paper bag, or canvas bag bags sewn from old sheets are ideal. Do not use nylon or plastic bags for harvesting. When harvesting medicinal herbs, make sure that the herb is free of any diseases, for instance a fungal disease. This is not uncommon in some herbs, such as Lady's Mantle and Shepherd's Purse. Herbs should always be picked in dry weather the only exception is Iceland Moss, which is better to collect when it is wet. The general rule with harvesting is that leaves of herbs are usually collected in early summer before the herb has bloomed and new flower buds are picked at first bloom, while berries and seeds are gathered when they are mature, which is usually in August. Roots are generally harvested in autumn and, in some cases, in spring. It is also very important to know what part of the herb should be collected, as in some cases different medicinal properties apply to different parts of the same herb. A good example of this is Dandelion, the actions of which depend on whether the leaves or the roots are used. Protected Plants Icelandic law declares that 31 plant species are protected, which means that it is forbidden to break off the buds, flowers, or roots of plants, to trample on them, dig them up, or damage them in any other way. Pyramidal Bugle Ajuga pyramidalis Common Twayblade Listera ovata Field Garlic Allium oleraceum Stag's-horn Clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum Forked Spleenwort Asplenium septentrionale Wood Sorrel Oxalis acetosella Maidenhair Spleenwort Asplenium trichomanes Arctic Poppy Papaver radicatum ssp. stefanssonii Green Spleenwort Asplenium viride Herb Paris Paris quadrifolia Hard Fern Blechnum spicant var. fallax Amphibious Bistort Persicaria amphibia Glossy Moonwort Botrychium simplex Tormentil Potentilla erecta Pedunculate Water-starwort Callitriche brutia Greenland Primrose Primula egaliksensis Large Yellow-sedge Carex flava Glaucous Dog Rose Rosa dumalis Hudson Bay Sedge Carex heleonastes Burnet Rose Rosa pimpinellifolia Parsley Fern Cryptogramma crispa Saxifrage Foliolose Saxifraga foliolosa Common Heath Grass Danthonia decumbens Lesser Spurrey Spergularia salina Eyebright Euphrasia calida Boreal Starwort Stellaria borealis Common Marsh-Bedstraw Galium palustre Water Pygmyweed Tillaea aquatica Wilson's Filmy-fern Hymenophyllum wilsonii Common Dog Violet Viola riviniana Saltmarsh Rush Juncus gerardii

After harvesting, it is essential to process the herbs on the same day, whether for drying or for making fresh tinctures. This applies especially to leaves and flowers, which are more sensitive than roots. Drying There are many ways to store herbs, but drying is one of the commonest ways to do so. The herbs must be kept in a dry, heated place. Most Icelandic medicinal herbs can be dried at room temperature. Leaves, Flowers, and Seeds The leaves or flowers can be spread out either on paper or on some sort of material. Newspaper should not be used because the ink can seep into the herbs. An ideal solution consists of laying an old sheet on a table and putting the herbs on top of it, but make sure that direct sunlight does not shine on the herbs while they are drying. The herbs should be turned once a day most herbs dry within a week at room temperature. Another method is to make a drying rack, which can easily be done with a wooden frame and garden netting. If the herbs are laid on fine netting, the air circulates better around them, which makes drying easier. To see if the herbs are ready for use, rub a bit between your fingers: if they are brittle and break up easily, they are ready. Tall plants with good stalks, like Meadowsweet, can also be tied together in bunches and hung upside down to dry. It is a good idea to hang these herbal bunches upside down on a clothesline to dry. Berries Berries are full of juice so they do not dry at room temperature like other parts of plants. However, they can be spread out on a baking tray and dried in an oven. Set the oven on the lowest heat and put the berries in the oven with the door half open. Allow the berries to remain at this heat for 1'2 hours with the door half open, then switch off the oven but keep the berries in the warmth for another 2 hours. After that, the berries can be transferred to a drawer lined with paper and allowed to dry at room temperature. To hasten drying, repeat the above process the next day. Roots Roots are usually harvested in autumn, when the visible parts of the plant are withering and before the ground freezes. If a garden fork is used instead of a shovel, there is less chance that the roots will be damaged. Roots have to be thoroughly cleaned in warm water so that all soil and dirt is removed a nailbrush is good for this as it gets the dents and ridges clean of soil and dirt. The root is then wiped carefully and cut into slices or little pieces. These are then laid on material or paper and dried at room temperature in the same way as the visible parts of the plant. Roots often take longer to dry than leaves and flowers, but this also depends on how thickly they have been cut. Storage Medicinal herbs are best stored in air-tight containers. It is good to store dried herbs in glass jars with a good lid, but ensure that the jars are kept out of direct sunlight. Another common method is to keep herbs in paper bags'if the herbs are to be stored for a long time, the bags can be placed in a cake pan to get rid of the air completely. It is not desirable to store herbs in aluminum pans or plastic for a long time. Most dried herbs keep well for 1'2 years, but after that they begin to lose their quality and medicinal power. However, roots often have a longer shelf life than leaves, flowers, and seeds.

Uses of Herbs There are many ways of using herbs. The most common methods that are practical for home use are discussed below. Infusions When an infusion is made, boiling water is poured over the soft parts of the plant (e.g., leaves, flowers, and seeds). These parts do not have to be boiled as the active constituents are easily released. Normally, 1'2 teaspoons of the dry herb are used for each cup and the daily dose is often 3'4 cups per day. Boiling water is poured over the herbs and the infusion is allowed to stand for 10'15 minutes. Then the herbs are sieved before the infusion is drunk. Many herbs contain volatile oils, so it is important to put a lid over the cup while the herbs are steeping so that the volatile oils do not evaporate. Herbs that contain volatile oils include Angelica, Creeping Thyme, and Pineappleweed. It is also very convenient to put 2'3 tablespoons of herbs in a vacuum flask (750 ml), pour boiling water over them, and put the lid on. Allow to steep for about 15 minutes before using and drink from the flask throughout the day. The herbs are sieved each time the tea is poured into the cup, but it is best to return them to the flask afterward as this is the best way to get the most out of them. If the tea becomes too strong or bitter later in the day, boiling water can be added. Some people do not like to drink hot tea, so then the best solution is to make the infusion in the traditional way, cool it down, and keep it in the refrigerator. Herbal infusions can be sweetened with a little honey if necessary, and some spices (e.g., fresh ginger, are ideal for giving the infusion extra flavor). If fresh herbs are used instead of dried ones for infusions, the general rule is to use double the amount of fresh herbs to the dried. It should also be kept in mind that although it is stated above that 1'2 teaspoons of herbs are normally used per cup, this is only a general suggestion and is not always appropriate, thus it is always necessary to know the correct dosage for each herb. In some instances, cold infusions are also made. This is done to release certain substances that cannot tolerate heat Greater Plantain and Couch Grass are examples of herbs that are suitable for use in this way. To make cold infusions, pour cold water over the herbs and allow to steep for 8'12 hours. This is often done at night so that the infusion is ready to drink the next day. Children always need smaller doses see 'Children and Dosage,' page 21. Hot Infusion ? Use 1'2 teaspoons of finely cut dried herbs or 2'4 teaspoons of fresh herbs. ? Place the herbs in a cup (150 ml), add boiling water, and cover with a lid. ? Allow the infusion to stand for 10'15 minutes. ? Strain the herbs through a sieve. ? Drink 3'4 cups a day. Cold Infusion ? Put 3'6 teaspoons of dried herbs in a 500 ml container, add cold water, and cover with a lid. ? Allow to stand for 8'12 hours. ? Strain the herbs with a sieve. ? Drink 3'4 cups a day. Decoctions A differentiation is made between infusions and decoctions in herbal medicine. Decoctions must be made from the hard parts of plants, such as roots and bark otherwise, the active constituents are not released from them. To make decoctions, the general dosage is 2'3 tablespoons of roots or bark to a pot of 750 ml cold water (do not use aluminum pots). Bring to a boil, then allow the decoction to simmer on low heat for 30'40 minutes. About one-third of the water will evaporate, so about 500 ml of the decoction is left. The decoction is then strained and the normal dosage of 1'3 cups is used. Decoctions keep well for 3 days in the refrigerator. In China, where it is still traditional to drink decoctions, as

opposed to the Western world where decoctions are not as common as they once were, it is customary to use roots and bark much more. The same parts are boiled three times (i.e., after the decoction has been strained the first time, the herbal residue is boiled in fresh water using the same method a second time). This is then repeated a third time all three decoctions are then mixed together and the blend is used when necessary. Children always need smaller doses see 'Children and Dosage,' page 21. Decoction ? Use 2'3 tablespoons of roots or bark. ? Add 750 ml cold water. ? Place in a pot and boil, uncovered, on low heat for 30'40 minutes. ? Strain the herbs through a sieve. ? Drink 1'3 cups a day. Tinctures Ancient methods used by herbalists to extract active substances from medicinal herbs involve steeping them in alcohol. The resulting liquid is called a tincture. Tinctures can be made at different strengths, but with dried herbs a 1:5 ratio is generally used (e.g., 100 g dried herbs to 500 ml alcohol). The strength of the alcohol differs according to which herb is being used, but normally the percentage of alcohol ranges between 25% and 60%. Information on the ratio and strength can be found in the dosage for tinctures for each individual herb in this book where applicable. The usual alcohol strength is 45%, but in this book 40% is most often given instead of 45% because it is assumed that pure vodka or spirits are used in homemade tinctures. When 25% strength is used to make tinctures, the vodka or spirits are diluted with sufficient water to make a 25% solution. The herbs are placed in a container with a tightfitting lid (e.g., a glass jar), and covered with alcohol. The lid is then screwed tightly closed, the jar is shaken and left to stand for at least 2 weeks, though it often takes 4'6 weeks for the tincture to be ready. The jar should not be exposed to sunlight, so it is best to keep it in a cupboard. The jar should be shaken every other day. When the tincture is ready, the herbs are strained through a sieve and a muslin cloth (a cloth diaper is ideal for this). Wring the cloth thoroughly to extract as much of the liquid out as possible. The tincture is then put into a glass bottle with a tight cap, labeled with the name and date, and stored away from the light. Tinctures keep well because the alcohol preserves the active constituents as soon as they are released. The usual shelf life is 3'4 years. Tinctures can also be made with apple cider vinegar or glycerol instead of alcohol. If tinctures are made with fresh herbs, the ratio is 1:2 (i.e., 100 g of herbs to 200 ml of alcohol). The easiest way is to fill the jar with fresh herbs, compact them slightly, and then add the alcohol to cover the herbs completely. The method described for dried herbs is then used. It is not recommended to blend many different herbs in one jar when making tinctures. A much better practice is to make tinctures from single herbs and then mix the ready-made tinctures together, because then it is possible to alter the herbal ratio of the tincture when necessary. The common dosage for tinctures that are made with dried herbs is 1 teaspoon three times a day, but if tinctures are made with fresh herbs, the dose is often 1'2 teaspoons three times a day. In this book, the dosage for the use of tinctures is given according to each individual herb. Keep in mind that herbalists rarely work with one herb at a time when prescribing tinctures, but instead often blend 4'6 types of herbs. See 'Herbal Blends,'page 20. Children always need smaller doses see 'Children and Dosage,' page 21.

Tinctures from Dried Herbs ? Fill the jar with fresh herbs and compress lightly. ? Cover well with alcohol (see different strengths for each herb). ? Close the lid well and label the jar with the name of the herb and date. ? Store at room temperature for 4'6 weeks shake every other day. ? Strain the herbs through a sieve and muslin cloth, wringing well. ? Pour the tincture into a glass bottle, labeled with the name and date. Keep away from the light. Tinctures from Fresh Herbs ? Fill the jar with fresh herbs and compress lightly. ? Cover well with alcohol (see different strengths for each herb). ? Close the lid well and label the jar with the name of the herb and date. ? Store at room temperature for 4'6 weeks shake every other day. ? Strain the herbs through a sieve and muslin cloth, wringing well. ? Pour the tincture into a glass bottle, labeled with the name and date. Keep away from the light. Powders Medicinal herbs ground into powders in a mortar or coffee grinder can be mixed with cold or hot water or sprinkled over food. The powder can also be put into capsules and taken like any other medication. Externally, the powder can also be mixed with an ointment or sprinkled directly over wounds or rashes, which was the common method for skin disorders in the past. Another old method that was often practiced consisted of sniffing powders for nosebleeds. Knotgrass was one of the herbs used this way. Herbal Syrups Sugar and honey are preservatives and have been used in herbal syrups for centuries. They also have soothing properties, so are normally used in herbal syrups for coughs and throat infections. The base for herbal syrups is either a strong infusion or decoction, preferably double strength, but a tincture can be added to increase the effect and preserve it even more. Usually an equal amount of infusion/decoction and sugar/ honey is used. Icelandic herbs that are suitable as cough syrups include Creeping Thyme, Angelica, Heather, and Yarrow. The normal dosage of herbal syrup is 1'2 teaspoons three times a day. Herbal Syrup ? 500 ml strong infusion or decoction (double strength). ? 500 g sugar, raw sugar, or honey. ? 10 ml tincture. ? Boil the sugar/honey in the tea on low heat and stir until the sugar/honey has dissolved. ? Add the tincture last. Remove from the heat and allow to cool. ? Pour into disinfected bottles, labeled with the name and date. Keep away from the light. ? Keeps for 6'12 months. Infused Oils The herb is usually heated in a base oil in a double boiler on low heat for 2'4 hours. Base oils include olive oil, sunflower oil, almond oil, and many other types of oils. Another method of making infused oils is to put fresh herbs in a clear glass jar, fill it with base oil to cover the herbs completely, and place it in the sun. Often the jar is kept exposed to the sun for up to 2 weeks until the oil is ready. This method is more suitable for sunnier countries than Iceland.

Infused oils keep for 6'12 months. Many Icelandic medicinal herbs are suitable for use in this form (e.g., Yarrow, Downy Birch, Chickweed, and Meadowsweet). Volatile or Essential Oils Essential oils are distilled from herbs'mostly from the flowers or seeds of the plant'using distillation equipment. A large quantity of herbs is needed to get a few milliliters of essential oil, so this kind of oil is rarely homemade. These oils are very concentrated and often need to be blended into a base oil before being used externally. Base oils include olive oil, sunflower oil, almond oil, and many other types of oils. Essential oils are not recommended for internal use unless under professional supervision. Ointments and Creams In the old days, ointments were usually made by boiling medicinal herbs in sheep fat or unsalted butter. Nowadays, however, it is far more common to use infused oils in ointments and thicken these with various types of wax (e.g., beeswax). Ointments keep for up to 1 year without preservatives. White cream is often made by blending water or an herbal infusion with oil and binding agents that bind the water and the oil. If no preservatives are used, white creams do not keep well. However, many medicinal herbs and essential oils can help to extend their shelf life. Poultices Herbal poultices are made with fresh or dried herbs as well as powders. They are usually used for nerve, joint, or muscle pain, but also for injuries such as strains and broken bones and to draw out pus from infected wounds or abscesses. Poultices are made by boiling the herbs for about 2 minutes in a little water, so that the water just covers the herbs. The water is then drained away, a little oil is applied to the skin so the herbs do not stick to it, and the poultice is then laid directly onto the skin. It is then covered with a muslin cloth. A heat wrap can also be put over the poultice to keep it warm. Poultices are often kept on for 2'3 hours and renewed if necessary. Compresses Sometimes it can be useful to lay a compress or muslin cloth moistened with an infusion, decoction, or tincture on inflammations and bruises, or to relieve headaches and lower fevers. Hot compresses are especially good when dealing with sports injuries, bruises, or inflammations, while cold compresses are generally used to lower fevers and for headaches. A normal infusion or decoction can be used, but it is also possible to double the strength. Tinctures are diluted with water the recommended use is 25 ml tincture to 500 ml water. A muslin cloth or handkerchief is moistened with the infusion, decoction, or diluted tincture and squeezed well. A little oil is applied to the skin to prevent the cloth from sticking to it and then the compress is applied. Cling wrap is used to cover the compress, which is kept on the injury or sore spot for 1'2 hours. Repeat if necessary. Eyebaths Inflammation or itching in the eyes can be reduced if the eyes are rinsed with herbal infusions or diluted tinctures. The herbal infusion should not be strong as this could irritate the eyes. Eyebath ? Place 1 teaspoon of herbs in a cup, add hot water, and allow to steep for 10 minutes. Strain through a coffee filter so that no herbal residue remains in the infusion. ? When the infusion is cold, pour it into an eyebath (available in pharmacies). Hold this against the eye, tilt the head back, and blink a few times. Rinse both eyes. ? Repeat two to three times a day.

280 Index A Abscesses, 9, 12, 20, 48, 144, 166, 174 Achillea millefolium. See Yarrow Acne, 20, 70, 100, 130, 154, 184 A'albl'ber, 24 Ajuga pyramidalis, 4 Alchemilla alpina, 128 Alchemilla filicaulis, 128 Alchemilla glabra, 128 Alchemilla glomerulans, 128 Alchemilla mollis, 128 Alchemilla vulgaris. See Lady's Mantle Alchemilla wichurae, 128 Allergies, 46, 54, 90, 94, 190, 210 Allium oleraceum, 4 Alpine Bistort (Bistorta vivipara), 12 Alpine Clubmoss (Diphasiastrum alpinum), 84 Alzheimer's disease, 48, 178 American Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), 132 Amnesia, 190, 240 Amphibious Bistort (Persicaria amphibia), 4 Analgesic, 16, 18, 34, 56, 74, 88, 92, 108, 118, 122, 144, 146, 160, 164, 166, 186, 190, 211, 222, 230, 236, 238 Anemia, 26, 60, 64, 68, 80, 104, 140, 210, 216, 232 Angelica (Angelica archangelica), 14'16, 17, 58, 152 Angelica sinensis. See Dong Quai Angelica sylvestris, 16, 152 Anthelmintic, 82, 96, 110, 122, 136, 158, 244 Anthoxanthum odoratum. See Sweet Vernal Grass Anthriscus sylvestris. See Cow Parsley Anthyllis vulneraria. See Kidney Vetch Antibacterial, 16, 22, 24, 26, 38, 40, 48, 52, 56, 58, 60, 62, 66, 74, 76, 88, 92, 96, 98, 108, 110, 112, 118, 122, 124, 130, 132, 146, 156, 170, 172, 174, 182, 184, 188, 190, 194, 196, 200, 214, 224, 226, 236, 244 Anti-emetic, 88, 110 Antifungal, 16, 40, 56, 62, 66, 76, 88, 92, 98, 118, 122, 124, 156, 174, 194, 196, 200, 214, 224 Anti-inflammatory, 12, 16, 22, 24, 26, 30, 34, 42, 44, 46, 48, 52, 66, 70, 74, 76, 86, 88, 90, 92, 94, 98, 100, 102, 104, 108, 114, 118, 122, 124, 130, 146, 148, 150, 158, 160, 164, 172, 174, 178, 188, 190, 192, 194, 196, 200, 210, 211, 214, 226, 230, 232, 236, 238, 240, 244 Antioxidants, 26, 62 Antispasmodic, 48, 50, 64, 132, 142, 186, 222 Antitussive, 48, 56, 98, 104, 110, 114, 120, 170, 172 Antiviral, 22, 88, 92, 120, 186, 188, 190, 200, 214, 232, 244 Anxiety, 168, 176, 178, 186, 188, 222, 224 Appetite, 16, 20, 34, 38, 64, 74, 78, 82, 160, 202, 204, 222, 226, 230, 236, 242, 244 Arctic Poppy (Papaver radicatum), 4, 18 Arctium lappa, 192 Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. See Bearberry Argentina anserina. See Silverweed Argentina egedii. See Eged's Silverweed Armeria maritima. See Sea-thrift, Common Arrhythmia, 126 Arthritis, 16, 20, 22, 28, 30, 32, 34, 42, 58, 68, 74, 76, 77, 82, 92, 96, 102, 106, 108, 116, 118, 126, 134, 136, 142, 144, 148, 154, 156, 162, 164, 182, 188, 190, 204, 210, 214, 230, 234, 236, 240, 244 Asplenium septentrionale, 4 Asplenium trichomanes, 4 Asplenium viride, 4 Asthma, 16, 38, 48, 56, 94, 98, 112, 166, 210, 214 Astragalus membranaceus, 134 Astringent, 12, 24, 28, 44, 60, 66, 86, 88, 92, 104, 108, 122, 146, 150, 164, 174, 176, 182, 194, 200, 212, 226, 230, 232, 236, 240, 244, 246 Atherosclerosis, 16, 26, 90, 100, 178 Athlete's foot, 168 Augnfr', 44 Autoimmune diseases, 34, 244 B Bacillus subtilis, 58 Back pain, 14, 68, 198, 236, 238 Baldursbr', 186 Baths, herbal, 10 Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), 20'22 Bed-wetting, 22 Beitilyng, 102

281 Bellis perennis. See Daisy Bell's Palsy, 142 Benign prostatic hyperplasia, 16, 52, 108, 210 Beriberi, 230 Betula lenta. See Sweet Birch Betula nana. See Dwarf Birch Betula pendula. See Silver Birch Betula pubescens. See Downy Birch Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), 24'27 Birch, 18, 70, 74, 76, 108, 169, 180, 240 Birki, 74 Bistorta vivipara. See Alpine Bistort Biting Stonecrop (Sedum acre), 28'29 Bj'llulilja, 132 Bladder cancer, 178 Bladder stones, 126 Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus), 30'31, 50 Bl'gresi, 240 Bl'kolla, 188, 190 Blechnum spicant var. fallax, 4 Bleeding, 12, 14, 20, 22, 26, 76, 82, 88, 90, 92, 94, 98, 106, 108, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, 134, 136, 138, 152, 154, 156, 176, 184, 188, 192, 194, 196, 198, 200, 202, 204, 210, 212, 218, 226, 232, 234, 236, 238, 240, 242, 244 Blends, herbal, 10 Bloating, 16, 38, 58, 70, 78, 82, 84, 110, 114, 118, 146, 210, 216, 242 Bl''arfi, 122 Bl''berg, 56 Bl''kollur, 88 Blood circulation, 16, 42, 198 Blood cleansing, 28, 74, 218, 230, 234, 242 Blood pressure, 26, 28, 38, 40, 100, 116, 124, 134, 188, 190, 196, 210, 216, 222, 224, 234, 244 Blood sugar, 24, 26, 30, 46, 70, 108, 118, 152, 178, 210, 211 Blood-thinning, 16, 27, 30, 34, 115, 148, 169, 238, 244 Blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum), 26 Bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata), 32'34 Boils, 24, 42, 92, 154 B'lu'ang, 30 Bones, 20, 68, 92, 94, 108, 128, 134, 138, 146, 236, 240 Boreal Starwort (Stellaria borealis), 4 Botrychium simplex, 4 Breast, 26, 38, 70, 118, 169, 240 Breast cancer, 26, 118, 166, 169 Breast milk, 38, 42, 70, 210, 211 Brenninetla, 208, 210 Brennis'ley, 144 Bronchitis, 16, 38, 48, 56, 66, 94, 98, 100, 104, 112, 114, 118, 122, 160, 164, 166, 172 Br'nugr's, 206 Brucellosis, 98 Bruises, 66, 68, 72, 92, 94, 100, 120, 174, 242 Buerger's Disease, 16 Burnet Rose (Rosa pimpinellifolia), 4 Burnir't, 176 Burns, 20, 42, 68, 88, 114, 120, 126, 144, 168, 170, 208, 210, 230 Butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris), 3, 36'37 C Callitriche brutia, 4 Calluna vulgaris. See Heather Caltha palustris. See Marsh Marigold Cancer, 16, 26, 30, 34, 54, 76, 80, 94, 100, 102, 112, 118, 136, 142, 148, 152, 160, 166, 168, 169, 174, 178, 188, 190, 192, 196, 200, 202, 210, 238, 244. See also individual cancers Candida, 58 Capillary veins, 26, 100 Capsella bursa-pastoris. See Shepherd's Purse Caraway (Carum carvi), 38'40, 211 Cardamine pratensis subsp. angustifolia. See Cuckooflower Cardiovascular disease, 26 Carex flava, 4 Carex heleonastes, 4 Carminative, 32, 56, 64, 70, 82, 108, 118, 158, 162, 186, 222 Carum carvi. See Caraway Cataracts, 26 Cat's Puff (Mastocarpus stellatus), 114 Cervical cancer, 80, 148 Cetraria islandica. See Iceland Moss Chamerion angustifolium. See Rose Bay Willow Herb Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita), 158, 186 Chickenpox, 148 Chickweed (Stellaria media), 42'43 Children, dosages for, 11 Cholagogue, 16, 32, 70, 82, 96, 118, 154, 244 Cholera, 124

282 Cholesterol, 152, 166, 168, 204, 210, 211 Chondrus crispus. See Irish Moss Cirsium arvense, 208 Cochlearia officinalis. See Scurvy Grass Colds, 14, 16, 20, 28, 32, 56, 58, 60, 80, 86, 92, 94, 102, 106, 114, 116, 118, 122, 144, 146, 148, 158, 160, 170, 176, 178, 180, 210, 226, 236, 242, 244, 246 Cold sores, 212 Cold-weather Eyebright (Euphrasia frigida), 44'46 Colic, 32, 34, 38, 58, 82, 188, 210 Colitis, 24, 34, 88, 94, 130, 158, 164, 172, 174, 200, 211, 222 Colon cancer, 26, 40 Colon cramps, 172 Colon spasms, 16, 142 Coltsfoot, 48, 49 Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara), 48'49 Comarum palustre. See Purple Marshlocks Common Dog Violet (Viola riviniana), 4 Common Heath Grass (Danthonia decumbens), 4 Common Marsh-Bedstraw (Galium palustre), 4 Common Sea-thrift (Armeria maritima), 50 Common Twayblade (Listera ovata), 4 Compresses, 9 Conjunctivitis, 20, 46, 86, 170, 188 Connective tissue, 108, 122, 124 Constipation, 28, 32, 52, 56, 68, 70, 78, 84, 92, 96, 106, 112, 120, 140, 154, 160, 162, 168, 184, 192, 202 Cooling, 24, 42, 60, 148, 192, 198, 202, 234 Corns, 28, 54, 168, 192, 214, 215, 236 Couch Grass (Elytrigia repens), 52'53 Coughs, 16, 36, 38, 48, 56, 66, 72, 94, 102, 104, 112, 114, 120, 122, 160, 166, 172, 178, 214, 216, 246 Cow Parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris), 54 Cradle cap, 100 Cramps, 76 Crataegus oxyacantha. See Hawthorn Creams, 9 Creeping Thistle (Cirsium arvense), 208 Creeping Thyme (Thymus praecox), 56'58, 200 Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum), 60'62 Cryptogramma crispa, 4 Cuckooflower (Cardamine pratensis subsp. angustifolia), 64 Cuminum cyminum, 130 Cystitis, 16, 22, 24, 26, 46, 48, 50, 52, 74, 76, 94, 100, 102, 108, 114, 118, 126, 132, 148, 174, 196 D Dactylorhiza maculata. See Spotted Orchid Daisy (Bellis perennis), 66 Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), 4, 68'70 Dandruff, 20, 72, 210 Danthonia decumbens, 4 Decoctions, 6'7 Demulcent, 36, 42, 48, 52, 72, 110, 138, 170, 174, 206, 232, 242 Depression, 86, 168, 176, 178, 214, 224 Devil's Bit Scabious (Succisa pratensis), 72 Diabetes, 22, 26, 38, 40, 48, 80, 108, 124, 168, 178, 190, 211 Diaphoretic, 16, 74, 96, 100, 108, 126, 140, 146, 160, 192, 226, 244 Diarrhea, 12, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 31, 34, 38, 43, 60, 83, 84, 86, 88, 92, 94, 102, 106, 110, 116, 122, 124, 130, 134, 144, 146, 148, 150, 156, 158, 170, 174, 176, 178, 180, 182, 188, 190, 192, 194, 196, 198, 200, 202, 204, 206, 210, 212, 226, 232, 234, 236, 238, 240, 244 Digestion, 16, 24, 34, 38, 42, 64, 68, 78, 82, 112, 114, 186, 204, 216, 244 Digestive system, 31, 40, 66, 82, 130, 152, 153, 170, 174, 212, 244 Diphasiastrum alpinum. See Alpine Clubmoss Dislocations, 202 Diuretic, 16, 20, 22, 24, 32, 38, 40, 46, 48, 52, 54, 56, 60, 66, 70, 74, 76, 86, 94, 96, 98, 100, 102, 108, 122, 126, 132, 146, 148, 152, 160, 162, 170, 180, 184, 188, 190, 194, 196, 198, 202, 204, 210, 211, 216, 218, 232, 234, 244 Diuretic Tea, 70 Dog bites, 134, 216, 244 Dog Violet, Common (Viola riviniana), 4 Dong Quai (Angelica sinensis), 12 Dosages, 10'11 Douches, 10 Downy Birch (Betula pubescens), 70, 74'76, 77, 169 Drosera peltata, 214 Drosera rotundifolia. See Sundew Dryas octopetala. See Mountain Avens Drying tips, 5

283 Dryopteris filix-mas. See Male Fern Dulse (Palmaria palmata), 78'80 Duodenal ulcers, 83, 112, 114, 146 Dwarf Birch (Betula nana), 74 Dysentery, 22, 34, 76, 84, 88, 90, 92, 94, 124, 164, 170, 194, 198, 206, 212, 214, 226, 234, 236, 240, 246 E Earache, 172 Ear infections, 58, 204 Eczema, 42, 70, 74, 76, 88, 90, 100, 122, 124, 126, 154, 166, 210 Edema, 26, 28, 32, 38, 40, 54, 64, 68, 74, 76, 98, 106, 108, 116, 118, 126, 162, 180, 184, 188, 192, 196, 202, 210, 230 Eged's Silverweed (Argentina egedii), 200 EIAV virus, 190 Einir, 116 Elytrigia repens. See Couch Grass Emmenagogue, 16, 38, 56, 96, 118, 244 Empetrum nigrum. See Crowberry Emphysema, 48, 108 Endometriosis, 130, 190, 196 Engjamunabl'm, 228 Engjar's, 164 Epilepsy, 28, 50, 64, 126, 134, 224 Equisetum arvense. See Horsetail Equisetum palustre, 108 Equisetum pratense, 106 Escherichia coli, 134 Essential oils, 9 Euphrasia calida, 4, 44 Euphrasia frigida. See Cold-weather Eyebright Euphrasia officinalis, 44 Euphrasia stricta, 44 Expectorant, 16, 36, 38, 56, 66, 72, 92, 94, 104, 110, 114, 120, 140, 142, 160, 204, 214, 216, 232 Eyebaths, 9'10 Eyebright (Euphrasia calida), 4, 44, 46, 246 Eye diseases, 24, 26, 32, 44, 46, 134 Eyesight, 22, 26, 38, 46, 246 Eyewash, 46 F Fagurf'fill, 66 Fatigue, 178, 206 Febrifuge, 32, 34, 72, 108, 146, 192, 194, 202, 234, 236, 244 Fever, 12, 14, 16, 24, 28, 38, 66, 72, 82, 86, 88, 102, 116, 136, 148, 158, 178, 188, 192, 200, 202, 210, 220, 230, 236, 240, 244 Fibromyalgia, 34 Field Garlic (Allium oleraceum), 4 Field Gentian (Gentianella campestris), 82'83 Filipendula ulmaria. See Meadowsweet Fir Clubmoss (Huperzia selago), 84 Fjallagr's, 110 Fj'rugr's, 114 Flatulence, 14, 16, 32, 34, 38, 40, 56, 58, 64, 70, 82, 118, 146, 158, 186, 216, 232 Forked Spleenwort (Asplenium septentrionale), 4 Fragaria vesca. See Strawberry, Wild Fucus vesiculosus. See Bladderwrack Fungal infections, 94, 124, 154, 156, 174, 232 G Galactogogue, 210 Galeopsis tetrahit. See Hemp-nettle Galium palustre, 4 Galium verum. See Lady's Bedstraw Gallbladder, 34, 70, 82, 86, 168 Gallstones, 70 Gar'abr''a, 222 Gar'ahj'lmgras, 104 Gargles, 10 Gastritis, 16, 24, 26, 40, 68, 78, 94, 102, 112, 114, 130, 146, 148, 174, 186, 198, 200, 214, 240, 244 Gaultheria procumbens, 132 Geldingahnappur, 50 Genital diseases, 218 Gentiana lutea, 82 Gentianella amarella, 82 Gentianella campestris. See Field Gentian Geranium maculatum, 240 Geranium robertianum, 240 Geranium sylvaticum. See Wood Cranesbill Geranium wilfordii, 240 Geum rivale. See Water Avens Giardia duodenalis, 26 Gingivitis, 12, 20, 24, 28, 58, 86, 122, 124, 130, 150, 154, 156, 190, 200, 226, 234 Glands, 132, 146, 154, 218 Glandular fever, 188 Glaucoma, 26

284 Glaucous Dog Rose (Rosa dumalis), 4 Glossy Moonwort (Botrychium simplex), 4 Gout, 34, 38, 52, 66, 70, 74, 102, 118, 124, 144, 168, 188, 192, 203, 216, 234 Gr''is'ra, 92 Grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris), 86'87 Greater Burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis), 3, 88 Greater Plantain (Plantago major), 92'94, 170 Greenland Primrose (Primula egaliksensis), 4 Green Spleenwort (Asplenium viride), 4 Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris), 96'97 Gullkollur, 120 Gulma'ra, 126 H Hair, 20, 36, 76, 80, 108, 116, 140, 150, 176, 210, 212, 236 Halitosis, 12, 38, 178, 184, 212 H'rdepla, 204 Hard Fern (Blechnum spicant var. fallax), 4 Harvesting tips, 3'4 Haugarfi, 42 Hawkweed (Hieracium spp.), 98 Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha), 234 Hay fever, 210, 220 Headaches, 14, 16, 20, 29, 34, 56, 64, 68, 83, 84, 106, 126, 144, 148, 170, 176, 188, 194, 214, 222, 236, 244 Heart, 64, 70, 76, 82, 86, 88, 100, 108, 130, 132, 134, 136, 140, 160, 168, 178, 188, 194, 202, 211, 212, 218, 222 Heartburn, 68, 116 Heartsease (Viola tricolor), 100'101 Heather (Calluna vulgaris), 102'3 Heath Grass, Common (Danthonia decumbens), 4 Helicobacter pylori, 16, 24, 26, 40, 112, 148 Helluhno'ri, 28 Hemorrhoids, 12, 26, 88, 94, 122, 124, 130, 174, 182, 188, 196, 200, 210, 226, 230, 232, 236, 244 Hemostatic, 12, 88, 92, 108, 122, 130, 138, 170, 188, 194, 200, 210, 212, 226, 232, 240, 244 Hemp-nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit), 104 Hepatic, 70, 154, 244 Hepatitis, 66, 70, 90, 94, 108, 142, 160, 190, 200, 244 Herb Paris (Paris quadrifolia), 4 Herbs. See also individual herbs dosages of, 10'11 drying, 5 harvesting, 3'4 storing, 5 uses of, 6'10 Hernia, 98, 106 Herpes simplex virus, 22, 114, 120, 186, 190 Hieracium spp. See Hawkweed Hierochloe odorata. See Sweet Grass High blood pressure, 26, 38 Hippuris vulgaris. See Mare's-tail HIV, 30, 112, 114, 136, 190 Hjartarfi, 194 Hla'kolla, 158 H'ffifill, 48 H'fs'ley, 140 Holtas'ley, 150 Hookworms, 124 Horbla'ka, 32 Horsetail (Equisetum arvense), 17, 70, 77, 106'8 Hot flashes, 168, 238 Hrafnaklukka, 64 Hr'taber, 212 Hudson Bay Sedge (Carex heleonastes), 4 Hundas'ra, 192 Huperzia selago. See Fir Clubmoss H'sapuntur, 52 Hymenophyllum wilsonii, 4 Hypertension. See High blood pressure Hypnotic, 34, 222 Hypoglycemic, 24, 40, 210 Hypotensive, 169, 188, 210, 222, 244 Hypothyroidism, 28, 80 I Icelandic Hawkweed (Pilosella islandica), 98 Iceland Moss (Cetraria islandica), 3, 4, 110'12, 148 Iceland Poppy (Papaver croceum), 18 Ilmreyr, 220 Immune system, 26, 30, 34, 70, 76, 84, 148, 152, 172, 174, 190, 200, 211 Impetigo, 100 Incontinence, 52, 102, 108 Indigestion, 112, 114, 146 Infertility, 128, 130, 212, 244 Inflammation, 42, 66, 72, 82, 86, 114, 136, 148, 158, 172, 174, 178, 192, 210, 240, 244

285 Influenza, 16, 22, 56, 60, 80, 94, 148, 178, 236, 240, 242, 244 Infused oils, 8'9 Infusions, 6 Insect bites, 94, 134, 172, 210 Insomnia, 18, 28, 56, 64, 102, 176, 178, 220, 222, 224, 232 Irish Moss (Chondrus crispus), 114'15 Irritable bowel syndrome, 112 Itching, 20, 26, 42, 46, 72, 88, 100, 122, 124, 130, 140, 154, 156, 158, 190, 210 J Jar'arber, 234 Jaundice, 14, 38, 52, 68, 70, 82, 116, 124, 154, 160, 162, 164, 166, 242, 246 Joint pain, 32, 42, 74, 76, 102, 118, 211, 220, 222 Juices, 10 Juncus gerardii, 4 Juniper (Juniperus communis), 116'18 K Kidney diseases, 52, 60, 102, 166, 196, 204 Kidney stones, 20, 22, 28, 30, 52, 74, 76, 102, 108, 116, 124, 126, 156, 192, 196, 203, 210 Kidney Vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria), 3, 120 Kl'elfting, 106 Knotgrass (Polygonum aviculare), 122'24, 196 K'ldugras, 160 Korns'ra, 13 Kr'kiber, 60 Krossf'fill, 96 K'men, 38 L Lady's Bedstraw (Galium verum), 126'27, 169 Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris), 128'30, 148, 196 Lamium album. See White Dead-nettle Large-flowered Wintergreen (Pyrola grandiflora), 3, 132'34 Large Yellow-sedge (Carex flava), 4 Laryngitis, 38, 94, 130 Laugadepla, 230 Laxative, 20, 24, 32, 34, 36, 52, 60, 70, 80, 94, 96, 100, 110, 120, 132, 136, 154, 160, 162, 182, 184, 192, 202, 234 Leg pain, 130 Lepidotheca suaveolens. See Pineappleweed Lesser Spurrey (Spergularia salina), 4 Leukemia, 26 Ligaments, 108 Ligusticum scoticum, 16 Linum catharticum. See Purging Flax Listera ovata, 4 Liver, 16, 32, 46, 49, 52, 64, 68, 70, 76, 78, 82, 86, 96, 97, 108, 124, 136, 138, 162, 168, 169, 178, 202, 211 Liver damage, 16, 46, 96, 97, 136 Liver disease, 34, 52, 136, 162, 168 Lj'satvit'nn, 232 L'f'tur, 138 Lokasj''ur, 246 Lumbago, 116, 142 Lung diseases, 36, 44, 100, 104, 108, 114, 160, 170, 172, 196, 214, 228 Lungs, 64, 76, 122, 138, 142, 160, 178, 208 Lupine, 152'53 Lupinus alba, 152 Lupinus caudatus, 152 Lupinus nootkatensis. See Nootka Lupine Lycopodium annotinum. See Stiff Clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum, 4, 84 Lyfjagras, 36 Lymphatic system, 126, 166 Lymphitis, 214 Lymph nodes, 166, 188 M Maidenhair Spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes), 4 Malaria, 124, 194 Male Fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), 136 Mare's-tail (Hippuris vulgaris), 138 Mar'ustakkur, 128 Mar'uv'ndur, 82 Marsh-Bedstraw, Common (Galium palustre), 4 Marsh Horsetail (Equisetum palustre), 108 Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris), 140'42 Mastitis, 42, 58, 188 Mastocarpus stellatus. See Cat's Puff Meadow Buttercup (Ranunculus acris), 144 Meadow Horsetail (Equisetum pratense), 106 Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), 77, 124, 146'48 Measles, 148, 244

286 Melas'l, 18 Memory loss, 46, 84 Meningitis, 26, 62 Menopause, 130, 166, 168, 186, 210, 232, 236, 238 Menstrual bleeding, 14, 20, 22, 88, 90, 98, 122, 130, 134, 152, 184, 192, 196, 210, 226, 232, 244 Menstrual cramps, 22, 68, 222 Menstrual pain, 26, 38, 58, 96, 130, 158, 182, 186, 198, 232, 244 Mentha longifolia, 130 Menyanthes trifoliata. See Bogbean Metabolism, stimulating, 54 Micrococcus luteus, 134 Migraines, 130, 236 Mja'jurt, 146 Mountain Avens (Dryas octopetala), 150 Mountain Sorrel (Oxyria digyna), 192 Mouth ulcers, 12, 20, 86, 130, 150, 166, 170, 174, 176, 184, 200, 236 Mouthwashes, 10 Mucus, 38, 48, 56, 94, 142, 160, 204, 208, 214, 216, 232 Muscle pain, 58, 74, 76, 108, 118, 220, 224, 236 Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 118 Myocarditis, 178 Myosotis scorpioides. See Water Forget-me-not M'ras'ley, 86 Myrrhis odorata. See Sweet Cicely N Nails, 80, 108, 180 Nausea, 34, 78, 80, 83, 88, 112, 136, 156, 158, 190, 196, 206, 244 Nephritis, 142, 188 Nerves, 86, 102, 116, 134, 138, 206, 222 Nervine, 222 Nervousness, 126 Nervous system, 50, 204 Nettle, 108, 130, 154, 208, 210, 211, 232, 242 Neuritis, 58 Neurological diseases, 178, 196 Night blindness, 26 Night sweats, 166, 168, 236 Nj'li, 154 Nootka Lupine (Lupinus nootkatensis), 152'53 Northern Dock (Rumex longifolius), 152, 154'56 Nosebleeds, 26, 98, 106, 108, 122, 134, 152, 194, 196, 198, 210, 242 Nourishing, 24, 30, 60, 78, 80, 110, 114, 206, 210 O Oils essential, 9 infused, 8'9 Ointments, 9 Olea europaea, 130 Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum), 18 Osteoarthritis, 34, 52, 70, 76, 108, 144, 154, 164, 168, 190, 192, 211, 238 Osteoporosis, 108, 166, 168, 169 Otitis, 26, 62 Ovarian cancer, 166 Oxalis acetosella. See Wood Sorrel Oxyria digyna. See Mountain Sorrel P Pain reliever, 18, 74, 238, 240 Palmaria palmata. See Dulse Papaver croceum. See Iceland Poppy Papaver radicatum. See Arctic Poppy Papaver somniferum. See Opium Poppy Parasites, 124, 244 Paris quadrifolia, 4 Parkinson's disease, 48, 178 Parmelia omphalodes, 152 Parnassia cabulica, 86 Parnassia nubicola, 86 Parnassia palustris. See Grass of Parnassus Parsley Fern (Cryptogramma crispa), 4 Pedicularis muscicola, 12 Pedunculate Water-starwort (Callitriche brutia), 4 Persicaria amphibia, 4 Phlebitis, 244 Pilosella islandica. See Icelandic Hawkweed Pineappleweed (Lepidotheca suaveolens), 158 Pinguicula vulgaris. See Butterwort Pinus pinaster, 210 Pinworms, 124 Plantago asiatica, 94 Plantago lanceolata. See Ribwort Plantain Plantago major. See Greater Plantain Plantago maritima. See Sea Plantain Plantago ovata, 92

287 Plantago psyllium, 92 Platanthera hyperborea, 206 Pleurisy, 160 Pneumonia, 26, 62, 76, 160, 178, 240 Poliovirus, 120, 186 Polygonum aviculare. See Knotgrass Polygonum bistorta, 12 Polypodium calaguala, 160 Polypody (Polypodium vulgare), 160'61 Potentilla erecta, 4, 200 Poultices, 9 Powders, 8 Premenstrual tension, 26, 130 Primula egaliksensis, 4 Prostate gland, 17, 52, 102, 106, 108, 169, 174, 210, 232 Protected plants, 4 Prunella vulgaris. See Self-heal Pseudorchis staminea, 206 Psoriasis, 42, 70, 76, 100, 126, 154, 160, 166 Psoriatic arthritis, 74 Purging Flax (Linum catharticum), 162 Purple Marshlocks (Comarum palustre), 164 Pyramidal Bugle (Ajuga pyramidalis), 4 Pyrola grandiflora. See Large-flowered Wintergreen Pyrola minor, 132 R Ranunculus acris. See Meadow Buttercup Rashes, 12, 20, 36, 42, 72, 76, 92, 100, 106, 108, 112, 120, 126, 154, 156, 160, 164, 178, 188, 192, 204, 206, 210, 212, 218, 235, 240 Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), 212 Rau'sm'ri, 166 Raynaud's Disease, 26 Red Clover (Trifolium pratense), 166'69 Relaxing, 224 Restless Leg Syndrome, 224 Restlessness, 86, 102, 178, 222 Retina, 26 Reyrgresi, 218 Rheumatism, 34, 38, 70, 82, 100, 164, 168, 203, 230, 238 Rheumatoid arthritis, 74 Rheum palmatum, 192 Rhinanthus minor. See Yellow Rattle Rhodiola rosea. See Roseroot Ribwort Plantain (Plantago lanceolata), 170'72 Ringworm, 154, 164, 214 Rosa dumalis, 4 Rosa pimpinellifolia, 4 Rose Bay Willow Herb (Chamerion angustifolium), 174'75 Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea), 3, 176'79 Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), 180'82 Rubefacient, 28 Rubus idaeus. See Raspberry Rubus saxatilis. See Stone Bramble Rumex acetosa. See Sorrel Rumex acetosella. See Sheep's Sorrel Rumex crispus. See Yellow Dock Rumex longifolius. See Northern Dock S Salix spp. See Willow Saltmarsh Rush (Juncus gerardii), 4 Sanguisorba officinalis. See Greater Burnet Saxifrage Foliolose (Saxifraga foliolosa), 4 Sciatica, 58, 210 Scurvy, 12, 18, 24, 26, 28, 32, 64, 66, 78, 154, 184, 192, 202, 212, 222, 230, 236 Scurvy Grass (Cochlearia officinalis), 184 Sea Mayweed (Tripleurospermum maritimum), 186 Sea Plantain (Plantago maritima), 92 Sea-thrift, Common (Armeria maritima), 50 Sedative, 16, 18, 86, 102, 108, 126, 158, 176, 186, 222, 232 Sedum acre. See Biting Stonecrop Self-heal (Prunella vulgaris), 188'90 Selgresi, 170 Senecio ambrosiodes, 96 Senecio aureus, 96 Senecio cineraria, 96 Senecio flaccidus, 96 Senecio jacobaea, 96 Senecio multicapitatus, 96 Senecio vulgaris. See Groundsel Serenoa repens, 210 Sexually transmitted diseases, 22, 108, 124 Shakes, 10 Sheep's Sorrel (Rumex acetosella), 192 Shepherd's Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris), 194'96 Sigursk'fur, 174 Silver Birch (Betula pendula), 74, 76

288 Silverweed (Argentina anserina), 124, 198'200 Sinuses, 46, 172 Sinusitis, 56 Skarfak'l, 184 Skin cancer, 166, 170, 172 Skin Cleansing Tea, 169 Skin problems, 22, 34, 52, 64, 66, 70, 76, 100, 108, 126, 134, 154, 166, 168, 174, 202, 210, 244 Skin rashes. See Rashes Sk'garkerfill, 54 Skollafingur, 84 Snake bites, 12, 88, 134, 216, 244 S'l, 78 S'ld'gg, 214 Sorbus aucuparia. See Rowan Sores, 22, 36, 76, 88, 92, 102, 116, 120, 140, 152, 158, 164, 176, 188, 194, 204, 206, 210, 212, 226, 240, 244 Sorrel (Rumex acetosa), 202'3 Sortulyng, 20 Sp'narkerfill, 216 Spasms, 64, 244 Speedwell (Veronica officinalis), 204'5 Spergularia salina, 4 Spleen, 64, 68, 204 Spotted Orchid (Dactylorhiza maculata), 206'7 Spotting, 106, 226, 232 Stag's-horn Clubmoss (Lycopodium clavatum), 4 Staphylococcus aureus, 58, 76, 134, 178 Stellaria borealis, 4 Stellaria media. See Chickweed Stiff Clubmoss (Lycopodium annotinum), 84 Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), 130, 208'11 Stomach acid, 146 Stomach cancer, 148 Stomach cramps, 32, 34, 38, 102, 118, 150, 164, 186, 194 Stomachic, 64, 216 Stomach pain, 66, 78, 96, 112, 146, 158, 164, 202 Stomach ulcers, 24, 52, 94, 112, 114, 146, 172, 200, 214 Stone Bramble (Rubus saxatilis), 212 Storage tips, 5 St'riburkni, 136 Strawberry, Wild (Fragaria vesca), 234'35 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 26, 62 Stroke, 90 St'fa, 72 Succisa pratensis. See Devil's Bit Scabious Sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), 3, 36, 214'15 Sweet Birch (Betula lenta), 74 Sweet Cicely (Myrrhis odorata), 216 Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata), 218 Sweet Vernal Grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), 220 Syrups, herbal, 8 T T'gamura, 198 Tapeworm, 124, 136 Taraxacum officinale. See Dandelion Tea for arthritis, 77 for cystitis, 22 for diarrhea, 124 diuretic, 70 for flatulence, 40 for gastritis, 148 for hair and nails, 108 making, 6 for menopause, 130 for menstrual bleeding, 196 for menstrual pain, 244 milk-stimulating, 211 for prostate gland, 17 for skin cleansing, 169 Tendons, 56, 240 Throat, sore, 12, 16, 24, 58, 68, 72, 88, 112, 122, 132, 134, 150, 160, 182, 188, 200, 234, 244 Throat infections, 38, 46, 48, 56, 58, 78, 112, 116, 118, 130, 166, 174, 176, 188, 218, 230 Thrombosis, 220 Thyme (Thymus vulgaris), 56, 214 Thymus praecox. See Creeping Thyme Thyroid, 30, 31, 80, 115, 169, 188 Tillaea aquatica, 4 Tinctures, 7'8 Tinnitus, 188 Toothache, 14, 70, 148, 194 Tormentil (Potentilla erecta), 4, 200 Trifolium pratense. See Red Clover Tripleurospermum maritimum. See Sea Mayweed Tuberculosis, 26, 42, 50, 62, 76, 90, 94, 98, 100, 110, 114, 116, 118, 134, 146, 164, 172, 174, 176, 188, 190, 204, 226, 244 T'nf'fill, 68

289 T'ns'ra, 202 Tussilago farfara. See Coltsfoot Twayblade, Common (Listera ovata), 4 U Ulcerative colitis, 88, 174, 200 Ulmus fulva, 192 Undaf'fill, 98 Urethritis, 52 Urinary system, 22, 52, 76, 94, 102, 108, 122, 124, 126, 132, 182, 204, 234, 244 Urtica dioica. See Stinging Nettle Uterine tumors, 130, 196 V Vaccinium myrtillus. See Bilberry Vaccinium uliginosum. See Blueberry Vaginal discharges, 24, 58, 88, 102, 130, 148, 182, 188, 200, 226, 230, 232, 234, 240, 244 Vaginal douches, 10 Vaginal infections, 22 Vaginal itching, 124, 130 Valerian (Valeriana officinalis), 222'24 Vallhumall, 242 Varicose veins, 26, 42, 88, 130, 232, 244 Vascular disease, 26 Vasculitis, 26, 88 Veins, 14, 16, 26, 42, 88, 100, 130, 232, 244 Venereal diseases. See Sexually transmitted diseases Venous system, 24, 130, 244 Vermifuge, 52 Veronica anagallis-aquatica. See Water Speedwell Veronica chamaedrys, 204 Veronica officinalis. See Speedwell Veronica serpyllifolia, 204 V''ir, 236 Villil'n, 162 Viola riviniana, 4 Viola tricolor. See Heartsease Vomiting, 22, 28, 29, 34, 43, 52, 80, 83, 84, 96, 104, 120, 136, 140, 156, 158, 180, 190, 196 W Warts, 28, 54, 68, 70, 140, 142, 144, 192, 214, 215, 236 Water Avens (Geum rivale), 200, 226'27 Water Forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides), 228 Water Pygmyweed (Tillaea aquatica), 4 Water Speedwell (Veronica anagallis-aquatica), 204, 230 White Dead-nettle (Lamium album), 232 Whooping cough, 36, 48, 98, 100, 214, 228 Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca), 234'35 Willow (Salix spp.), 236'38 Wilson's Filmy-fern (Hymenophyllum wilsonii), 4 Wolf's Foot (Lycopodium clavatum), 84 Wood Cranesbill (Geranium sylvaticum), 240 Wood Sorrel (Oxalis acetosella), 4, 192 Worms, 14, 28, 32, 38, 58, 78, 82, 92, 96, 110, 112, 122, 136, 152, 158, 160, 170, 172, 194, 202, 230, 236, 244 Wounds, 12, 20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 36, 42, 48, 50, 54, 58, 66, 68, 70, 76, 86, 92, 94, 98, 106, 108, 112, 114, 116, 120, 122, 126, 128, 130, 132, 134, 136, 138, 140, 146, 148, 152, 154, 156, 158, 166, 170, 172, 174, 176, 182, 186, 188, 192, 194, 196, 198, 200, 204, 212, 216, 218, 226, 230, 232, 234, 236, 240, 242, 244 Wrinkles, 26, 166 Y Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), 58, 77, 130, 242'44 Yellow Dock (Rumex crispus), 154, 156 Yellow Rattle (Rhinanthus minor), 246 ? 'renningarfj'la, 100

Sign in with your Inkflash login details:
Welcome! You’re just one step away from a personalised 3D book exploring experience:
Your name
Email address
Choose a password: Forgot your password?
What’s 1 added to 7?

Fingerpress.co.uk - book publisher
Inkflash is owned and operated by Fingerpress (UK). Copyright ©, all rights reserved.

Site design and development by Matt Stephens, Dino Fancellu and William Narmontas.
Follow Inkflash on Twitter (@InkflashVR) and LinkedIn for the latest site developments.

Acknowledgments, image attributions, shout-outs etc

This website uses cookies to count visitors. Use at your own peril!!!!