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MERCURY SPACECRAFT INTERIOR ARRANGEMENT from Project Mercury Indoctrination revision May 21 1959
VOSTOK 1 MANNED SPACECRAFT Reentry module, equipment module and final stage Soviet Union 1961
AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF THE REAL AND THE IMAGINED
RON MILLER AN ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF THE REAL AND THE IMAGINED FOREWORDS LANCE BUSH PRESIDENT & CEO, CHALLENGER CENTER FOR SPACE SCIENCE EDUCATION TOM CROUCH SENIOR CURATOR, AERONAUTICS DEPARTMENT, SMITHSONIAN NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM WITH SPECIAL ART BY NICK STEVENS Washington, DC
? 2016 Elephant Book Company Limited This 2016 edition published by Smithsonian Books by arrangement with Elephant Book Company Limited, 35 Fournier Street, London, E1 6QE, United Kingdom. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. This book may be purchased for educational, business, or sales promotional use. For information, please write: Special Markets Department, Smithsonian Books, P. O. Box 37012, MRC 513, Washington, DC 20013 Published by Smithsonian Books Director: Carolyn Gleason Production Editor: Christina Wiginton Editorial Director: Will Steeds Project Editor: Chris McNab Designer: Mark Holt Proofreader: Magda Nakassis Picture Researcher: Susannah Jayes Color reproduction: Pixel Studios Ltd. Elephant Book Company Limited wish to thank the following for their help in preparing this book: Carolyn Gleason, Christina Wiginton, and Raychel Rapazza of the Smithsonian Institution; Lance Bush and Tom Crouch for garaciously providing the forewords; Susannah Jayes for her tireless work as picture researcher; Mark Holt for the inspiring design. ISBN: 978-1-58834-577-6 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Miller, Ron, 1947- author. Title: Spaceships : an illustrated history of the real and the imagined / Ron Miller. Identi'ers: LCCN 2015047148 | ISBN 9781588345776 Subjects: LCSH: Space ships--History. | Astronautics--History. | Outer space--Exploration--History. | Popular culture. Classi'cation: LCC TL795 .M543 2016 | DDC 629.47--dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015047148 Manufactured in China 20 19 18 17 16 5 4 3 2 1 For permission to reproduce illustrations appearing in this book, please correspond directly with the owners of the works, as seen on p. 256. Smithsonian Books does not retain reproduction rights for these images individually, or maintain a 'le of addresses for sources. The information in this book is true and complete to the best of our knowledge. All recommendations are made without any guarantee on the part of the author or publisher, who also disclaim any liability in connection with the use of this data of speci'c details. We recognize, further, that some words, model names, and designations mentioned herein are the property of the trademark holder. We use them for identi'cation purposes only. This is not an o'cial publication. While every attempt has been made to establish copyright for the images reproduced in this book, this has proved impossible in a few cases. Elephant Book Company Limited apologizes for any inadvertent infringement of copyright, and will be grateful for noti'cation of any errors or omissions. THE AUTHOR RON MILLER: Ron Miller is an illustrator and author living in Virginia. Before becoming a freelance illustrator in 1977, he was the art director for the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum's Albert Einstein Planetarium. His primary work today entails the writing and illustration of books specializing in astronomical, astronautical, and science'ction subjects. To date he has more than 50 titles to his credit, many for younger readers. FOREWORDS LANCE BUSH: Lance Bush is President & CEO of the Challenger Center for Space Science Education. Its network of Challenger Learning Centers was founded to promote interest in STEM subjects (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics); so far there are forty Centers in the United States, one in Canada, one in the UK, and one in South Korea. Further Centers are due to open. More than 400,000 middle-school learners and 400,000 educators attend a center each year. TOM CROUCH: Tom Crouch is Senior Curator in the Aeronautics Department at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, and author or editor of numerous books and articles for both popular magazines and scholarly journals. Tom Crouch has won a number of major writing awards, including the history book prizes o'ered by both the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the Aviation/Space Writers Association. CAPTIONS Endpapers: In 1961, the American Mercury and Soviet Vostok spacecraft were the 'rst to carry humans into space. In both cases, the astronauts were more passengers than pilots, with little or no control over their spacecraft. Half Title: This painting of the spaceship Luna decorated the cover of the press book for the landmark 1950 science'ction 'lm, Destination Moon. Title: The delta-wing Sanger II is a proposed two-stage to orbit space vehicle; the orbiter sits on the spaceplane's back. Imprint: This Hungarian, friction-powered, tin 'Moon Rocket? toy was issued in the 1960s to celebrate Interkozmosz, the Soviet space program.
CONTENTS FOREWORD: LANCE BUSH 6 FOREWORD: TOM CROUCH 7 INTRODUCTION 8 Chapter One THE DREAMERS 14 INTRODUCTION THE DREAMERS 16 COPERNICUS & GALILEO 18 INVENTION OF THE ROCKET 20 HOW ROCKETS WORK 22 THE FIRST FICTIONAL SPACEFLIGHTS 24 Chapter Two THE ENGINEERS 26 INTRODUCTION THE ENGINEERS 28 THE PIONEERS 30 'THE BRICK MOON? 32 TO THE MOON BY BALLOON 34 JULES VERNE 36 VICTORIAN ERA & BEYOND 38 SPACE GUNS 44 THE SCIENTISTS & ENGINEERS 48 THE FIRST NUCLEAR SPACESHIPS 49 BY LUNA TO THE MOON 50 Chapter Three THE EXPERIMENTERS 52 INTRODUCTION THE EXPERIMENTERS 54 KONSTANTIN TSIOLKOVSKY 56 ROBERT GODDARD 58 THE 1927 SOVIET SPACEFLIGHT EXPO 60 THE ROCKETEERS 62 THE TEENS & TWENTIES 64 THE ROCKET SOCIETIES 66 HERMANN OBERTH 68 PULP SPACESHIPS 70 FRAU IM MOND 74 ROCKET CARS & ROCKET SLEDS 76 ROCKET AIRCRAFT 78 MAX VALIER 80 MODEL ROCKETS & SPACESHIPS 82 BUCK ROGERS & FLASH GORDON 84 SPACESHIP #1 STARTS 88 STRATOSPHERE BALLOONS 90 Chapter Four WORLD WAR II AND THE ROCKET RACE 92 INTRODUCTION WORLD WAR II AND THE ROCKET RACE 94 THE V-2 96 V-2 VARIANTS 98 THE BRITISH INTERPLANETARY SOCIETY IN THE 1930S 100 THE BRITISH INTERPLANETARY SOCIETY IN THE 1940S 102 SPACESHIPS IN 1940S POP CULTURE 104 ORBITING THE EARTH 106 EUGEN S'NGER 108 S'NGER DERIVATIVES 110 THE SPACE SUIT 114 ROCKET AIRCRAFT OF WORLD WAR II 116 Chapter Five THE GOLDEN AGE 118 INTRODUCTION THE GOLDEN AGE 120 ELECTRIC SPACECRAFT 122 THE COLLIER'S SPACEFLIGHT SYMPOSIUM 124 KRAFFT EHRICKE 128 DESTINATION MOON 130 THE SPACESHIP IN POPULAR CULTURE IN THE 1950S 132 EARLY LAUNCH VEHICLES 138 PROJECT ADAM 140 DYNA-SOAR PROGRAM 141 DYNA-SOAR 142 DARRELL ROMICK 144 MOVIE SPACESHIPS: 1900 TO THE 1930S 146 MOVIE SPACESHIPS: 1940 TO THE 1950S 148 WALT DISNEY'S 'MAN IN SPACE? 152 THINKING ABOUT THE MOON 154 ELLWYN ANGLE 156 CONSTANTIN P. LENT 157 THE TWA MOONLINER 158 G. HARRY STINE 158 SPACESHIP TOYS OF THE 1950S 160 SPUTNIK & EXPLORER 162 THE NEW ROCKET PLANES 164 THE X-15 PROGRAM 166 Chapter Six DREAMS TO REALITY 168 INTRODUCTION DREAMS TO REALITY 170 VOSTOK 172 EVOLUTION OF MERCURY 174 THE MERCURY PROGRAM 176 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY 178 THE GEMINI PROGRAM 180 SPACE STATIONS 182 EVOLUTION OF APOLLO 186 THE APOLLO PROGRAM 188 THE APOLLO-SOYUZ TEST PROJECT 190 THE SOVIET LUNAR PROGRAM 192 SINGLE STAGE TO ORBIT 194 LIFTING BODIES 196 EARLY SPACE SHUTTLE CONCEPTS 198 EVOLUTION OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE 200 THE SPACE SHUTTLE 202 THE SHUTTLE ORBITER 202 Chapter Seven THE FUTURE 206 INTRODUCTION THE FUTURE 208 BURAN (SNOWSTORM) 210 SECOND-GENERATION SPACE SHUTTLES 212 SPACEPLANES & SPACE SHUTTLES AROUND THE WORLD 214 SPACEPLANE CONCEPTS 216 FUTURE PROPULSION 218 THE XPRIZE 222 THE XPRIZE VISION 224 SPACESHIPONE 226 VIRGIN GALACTIC 228 MODERN MOVIE SPACESHIPS 230 RETURN TO THE MOON 232 EARLY MARS MISSIONS 234 MODERN MARS MISSIONS 236 MARS EXPLORATION 238 NASA ORION 240 SOLAR SAILS 242 STARSHIPS TECHNOLOGY 244 VISIONS OF THE STARSHIP 246 CONCLUSION 248 INDEX 250 RESOURCES / ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 255 PICTURE CREDITS 256
FOREWORD FOREWORD: LANCE BUSH PRESIDENT & CEO, CHALLENGER CENTER FOR SPACE SCIENCE EDUCATION, WASHINGTON, DC My family and friends get to call me a 'NASA Rocket Scientist.' I feel privileged to have had a career that included the chance to design space vehicles ('Spaceships,' or as Ron has also called them, 'Dream Machines') for NASA, to call some of the bravest souls'astronauts? among my friends, and to help inspire the next generations of leaders who will continue to explore the cosmos. Fresh out of college I joined a legendary group within NASA that designed the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo missions. The very room in which we had our weekly meetings was the one in which the Mercury 7 astronauts posed for their iconic photo (complete with silver spray-painted boots to replicate space boots). The engineers who mentored me were disciplined, rigorous, and relentless, teaching me how to make dreams a reality. Through this work, I made lasting friendships with colleagues who trusted us enough to board the vehicles we designed and fly them into space. My joy of discovery was powered by incredible people who helped me along the way. One in particular was not an engineer, astronaut, or scientist, but a talented artist. That man is Ron Miller. Ron was one of my teachers at International Space University. I was just a young engineer at NASA when I was selected to attend the 'star fleet academy? that polishes promising young professionals from space agencies around the globe to become a generation of leaders. Ron's impact was immediate. He expanded my mind to understand the profound influence that artists, writers, filmmakers, and the like have on the engineers, scientists, and technicians. These individuals created the first visions of what was later realized, and in doing so influenced and inspired those who took those dreams and made them a reality. Ron is not only recognized as one of the greatest space artists in history, but also as the greatest historian of space art. He helped me and so many others understand, appreciate, and perpetuate the contribution of art and creativity to the realization of space exploration. In this way, Ron has been a key to civilization's exploration of its place in the cosmos through the firing of the imagination leading to actual exploration. History has a way of sweeping you up into it. I had taken a large share of art history and mythology classes while earning my bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering. It was clear that Ron's lessons already resonated with me. Now, I see several of the space vehicles that I helped to design included in this book. I also see some of the inspirations for those designs. Ron saw it all and continues to inspire. Today, I lead Challenger Center, an education foundation that engages hundreds of thousands of students around the globe each year. As a lasting memorial to the crew of the Space Shuttle Challenger 51-L mission, the organization uses hands-on, space simulations to excite students about science and math. The children are inspired to pursue their dreams, dreams that will become a reality and contribute to the future of our world. In this role and throughout my entire career I have dedicated much thought to understanding how we, mankind, can improve our lot. Exploring, discovering, and creative thinking are at the core of societal advances. In Spaceships, Ron has captured the story of our yearning, and at the same time, makes it a self-fulfilling prophecy by helping to inspire generations to come. For this I am grateful to Ron. I hope you enjoy this ride through history and become inspired to be a part of that continuum going forward!
FOREWORD 7 FOREWORD: TOM CROUCH SENIOR CURATOR, AERONAUTICS DEPARTMENT, SMITHSONIAN NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM, WASHINGTON, DC Spaceship'the word brings back memories of growing up as an aerospace-obsessed kid in the 1950s. I cut my teeth on Verne, Wells, Clark, Heinlein, and Asimov. The tattered remains of my juvenile library of space books, from The Real Book about Space Travel and All About Rockets and Missiles to Rockets, Jets, Guided Missiles and Space Ships, with Jack Coggins? wonderful illustration of a winged spacecraft blazing across the cover, still have an honored place on my sagging bookshelves. The night of March 9, 1955, found this fifth grader sprawled on the floor with his nose glued to the small, flickering screen of our TV when Walt Disney appeared holding a rocket model to introduce the 'Man in Space? episode of Disneyland. The walls of my bedroom were decorated with colored illustrations of spacecraft by artists Chesley Bonestell, Rolf Klep, and Fred Freeman clipped from old Collier's magazines. As I grew older I devoured the books on spaceflight by Ley and von Braun, filled with those wonderful illustrations. Those are the images that spring to mind when I hear the word 'SPACESHIP.' My favorite was the cut-away view of the three-stage ferry rocket sitting on the pad, with each of its ninety Hydrazine and nitric acid fueled engines shown. I was impressed by the detail in which von Braun, Ley, and the artists had worked out every step of an entire space program; from the first earth satellite to the giant ferry rockets; from the winged crew vehicles that would fly back to a landing on Earth to the doughnutshaped space station, and the craft that would carry human explorers to the moon and Mars. While it certainly inspired a generation of young space enthusiasts, the 1950s era blueprint for space proved wildly impractical, absurdly ambitious, and astronomically expensive. Locked in a competition to demonstrate national technological prowess, both the United States and the USSR opted for a quicker and more affordable path to orbit and on to the moon using ballistic capsules. The winged Space Shuttle and the International Space Station came later. While those real-life vehicles never looked as sleek or impressive as the dream ships of the 1950s, they achieved the basic goal of establishing humanity as a space-faring species. As both an artist and an author, my friend Ron Miller has demonstrated a magisterial command of the history and iconography of the spaceship. In these pages he invites readers to share the fascinating journey from the 17th-century realization that the moon and planets were worlds like our own to which, someday, somehow, human beings might travel, to the space vehicles that finally enabled us to make that trip, and will carry us even farther in the future. This is a book that will have an honored place on the bookshelf alongside the tattered treasures of my youth.
Wof hile there had been numerous early fantasies about trips to the moon, no one really considered the possibility spaceflight as an actuality until two important events occurred. First, scientists had to discover that there were places in the universe other than Earth. And second, they had to create some sort of means for getting there. These two events took place about 250 years apart. The 'rst was the discovery that the earth was not the only world in the universe. A speci'c date can be attached to this event: the night of November 30, 1610. This was when Galileo Galilei 'rst turned a telescope toward the heavens and saw that the moon and planets were not stars, but rather worlds perhaps very much like our own Earth. The second event was the discovery that science and technology held the key to the possibility of humans being able to visit these worlds. This was facilitated by the invention of the balloon in 1783. For the 'rst time in history, technology enabled humans to rise above the surface of the earth farther than they could jump. This occurred near the very beginning of a new century, a century when science and engineering seemed capable of performing miracles. It no longer took a great leap of imagination or faith to believe that the ability to travel to the moon and planets was within the grasp of humankind. THE INVENTION OF THE ROCKET SHIP That the rocket is the secret to leaving the earth and traveling between the planets was not always as self-evident as it now seems. In 1657 Cyrano de Bergerac published his classic comic satire, Histoire Comique: Contenant les 'tats et Empires de la Lune (A Comical History of the States and Empire of the Moon). At one point in his story, the narrator (Cyrano himself) tries to reach the moon by a number of highly imaginative methods. Of particular interest is his description of a manned rocket flight into space via a spring-powered, winged flying machine with a large number of 'rework rockets attached to it. The rockets ignite with a roar and Cyrano is launched into the air (missing the moon entirely, I might add). There was a curious report in the journal Petits de la Croix (Little Cross), published c. 1784, that might contain a description of the 'rst non'ctional manned rocket flight. Among the pyrotechnics that accompanied the reception of the French ambassador by the King of Siam, '[t]here were rockets as big as one of our hogsheads, and of a proportionable length. . . The inventor of this 're-work sitting himself down on the end of one of these rockets, ordered it to be 'red, and was whisked up into the air higher than any four steeples in the world could reach . . .' This might describe an actual event, since Indonesians at that time were certainly building enormous festival rockets'far larger than any seen in Europe. These huge rockets are still being built and launched to this day. In the early part of the 19th century, there were several better-documented attempts to launch a human being by means of a rocket, the best known being those of Claude Ruggieri, Royal Pyrotechnician of France, whose family were famous 'reworks designers and manufacturers (the company still exists). In 1806 Ruggieri succeeded in launching a live ram to an altitude of 600ft (183m), returning it safely to Earth by means of a parachute. About 1830, Ruggieri announced his intention of lofting a human being by means of a giant two-tube 'combination rocket.' The launch was to take place from the Champ des Mars, but because the 'young man? who was to be the passenger turned out to be a small boy, the police forbade the experiment. Until the middle of the 19th century, it would appear, the rocket as a means of propulsion was never taken very seriously'any actual attempts Introduction ASTRONAUTICS'THE TECHNOLOGY OF EXPLORING SPACE'IS UNIQUE AMONG ALL THE SCIENCES IN THAT IT OWES ITS ORIGINS TO AN ART FORM. LONG BEFORE ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS TOOK THE POSSIBILITY OF SPACEFLIGHT SERIOUSLY, VIRTUALLY ALL OF ITS ASPECTS WERE EXPLORED IN ART AND LITERATURE. THE USE OF ROCKETS IN SPACEFLIGHT, LIQUID FUELS, SOLAR SAILS, ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES, THE NEED FOR LIFE-SUPPORT SYSTEMS, THE SPACESUIT, AND EVEN THE LAUNCH COUNTDOWN WERE ALL DESCRIBED IN FICTION LONG BEFORE THEY BECAME REALITY. Galileo's monumental discovery that the planet Jupiter was a world with orbiting moons of its own was instrumental in inspiring a profound desire to explore the newly discovered solar system.
INTRODUCTION By the 19th century, the concept of traveling to other worlds and advanced technology were inextricably linked, as shown in this intricate French woodcut from 1848, which depicts regular railroad service to and from the moon. In this image the astronauts (and also two chickens) in Jules Verne's classic novel, Around the Moon, published in 1870, enjoy the lofty pleasures of weightlessness, even though Verne got the explanation of their condition inaccurate.
10 to launch animals or human beings were clearly intended as stunts'and as a means of flight into space it was relegated to farce and comedy. The best-known contender, of course, for suggesting the use of rockets in spaceflight is Jules Verne. Although Verne did not use rockets to launch his spacecraft in his classic 1865 novel, De la Terre ? la Lune (From the Earth to the Moon)'he instead opted for a giant cannon'he did provide it with rockets that were intended to brake its fall onto the lunar surface. These were ultimately used in the novel to change the vehicle's trajectory'a midcourse correction. Verne was not only the 'rst to suggest that rockets could be used to propel a spacecraft but, more importantly, that rockets would work in a vacuum. This is a fact that eluded even scientists. It was di'cult to grasp the idea that a rocket did not operate by pushing against the air behind it. Robert Goddard, for example, when he suggested that a rocket could travel to the moon, was much criticized by the New York Times for lacking 'the knowledge ladled out daily in high schools,' i.e., that a rocket's exhaust needed air to push against. It's therefore important to realize that Verne's device was no serendipitous guess: he fully understood the principles of rocket propulsion. Verne was also the 'rst person to put the problem of spaceflight on a mathematical basis. He even provided the calculations for the projectile's escape velocity and the elements of its trajectory. To this end, it might rightly be said that Verne literally invented the science of astronautics. There is, however, a little-known contender for precedence in suggesting the use of a rocket for interplanetary travel: an obscure American novel written in 1852, Gulliver Joi, by Elbert Perce. The journey it describes to the imaginary planet 'Kailoo? is made by a rocket-propelled spaceship. It is a hollow, torpedo-shaped cylinder made of a very light substance that is nevertheless as hard as iron and only just large enough to contain a single passenger lying prone. A narrow exhaust nozzle protrudes from the sharply pointed rear. In turn, the nozzle is an extension of a box-shaped combustion chamber. This contains a newly invented powder that is heated to ignition by a globe of 'malleable flame? that surrounds the chamber; the exhaust from this can be throttled by the pilot. Perce's spaceship is controlled by a kind of magnetic compass that automatically keeps it pointed toward the planet Kailoo. The pilot'in an insulated cabin'is equipped with a powerful telescope in addition to his controls. Gulliver Joi contains the 'rst accurate, unambiguous description of a manned, rocketpropelled interplanetary spacecraft and as such certainly deserves at least a tip of the historian's hat. Its clear priority is marred, however, by the unfortunate fact that it was apparently an obscure novel even at the time it was published. Unlike Verne's From the Earth to the Moon, Gulliver Joi had no influence whatsoever, direct or otherwise, on the development of either rocketry or space travel. At bottom, what is most important is not who was the 'rst to suggest the use of rockets for space travel, but rather whose suggestion had any real impact on the development of that idea. After all, what di'erence can a book make if no one reads it? Verne's novel was a best seller that inspired scientists and engineers to 'nally take the problem of spaceflight seriously'the German mathematician Hermann Oberth and the Russian theorist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, for example, both credit the Frenchman with inspiring their interest in rockets and space travel. And the reason was simple: Verne took the problem of spaceflight seriously. From the Earth to the Moon anticipated many of the problems that were to eventually face modern space scientists and its author made a creditable attempt at suggesting realistic solutions to these problems'solutions, it is very important to realize, that did not depend upon science or technology unavailable to 19th-century engineers. Verne was the 'rst person'scientist or otherwise'to do this. FROM VERNE TO THE MOON The reality of spaceflight, however, turned out to be not the easy task it seemed. A century had to pass before science caught up with Verne's dream. It was not until the 'nal decades of the 19th century that a handful of maverick theorists began to consider the practical possibility of spaceflight and the potential use of the rocket. There was good reason for the delay. The largest and more or less consistently successful rockets built up to the end of the 19th century were the war rockets of British citizens William Congreve and William Hale. When the American national anthem says, 'by the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,' those are Congreve rockets it is describing. The largest of these were 6.5in (165.1mm) in diameter (42-pounders) with a maximum range of 3,000yd (2,743m), although Congreve designed rockets with 8in (203mm) diameters and weighing up to 1,000lb (454kg)? these never saw service because they were then INTRODUCTION The rather jauntylooking, rocket-riding 'Mr. Golightly? was one of the most popular images of the 'rst half of the 19th century, appearing in many forms over several decades. One of the 'rst spacecraft to be designed by an engineer was this dynamite-propelled rocket proposed in 1893 by German inventor Hermann Ganswindt.
11 INTRODUCTION John Jacob Astor's antigravity spaceship Callisto, from his novel, A Journey in Other Worlds (1894), traveled to Jupiter, Saturn, and a Pluto-like world called 'Cassandra.' A recreation of one of the magnetically powered Mercurian spaceships in Rev. Lach-Szyrma's series of stories, collected as Letters from the Planets (1887'93). This spaceship was described in 1903 by Konstantin Tsiolkovksy, the pioneering Russian theorist who was instrumental in laying the foundation for modern spaceflight. One of the spaceships in Garrett Serviss? Edison's Conquest of Mars (1898) sent to the red planet in retaliation for the attack on the earth described in H. G. Wells? War of the Worlds.
12 considered too heavy and impractical. Hale's rockets, developed from the 1840s onward, had ranges of up to 2,200yd (2,011m). These rockets may have been more accurate and more reliable than Congreve's, but they were still, fundamentally, not much di'erent than the rockets used in 'reworks displays. It was simply too hard to imagine scaling these up to the size and reliability required for launching a vehicle into outer space. In 1893, German inventor Hermann Ganswindt was one of the 'rst scientists to take a serious look at the design of a spacecraft from an engineering point of view. His only mistake was in thinking that a rocket's exhaust needed something to react against in order for the rocket to fly. But it was a Russian mathematician and teacher who was the 'rst to give the problem of space exploration a solid, mathematical foundation. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky began to consider the use of rockets to explore space as the 19th century turned into the 20th century. He wrote numerous papers on the subject, summing up his conclusions in two seminal books, Investigations of Outer Space by Rocket Devices (1911) and Aims of Astronauts (1914). In these, Tsiolkovsky was the 'rst theoretician to apply mathematics and physics rigorously to the use of rockets in space travel. In addition to creating the basic equations still in use by rocket designers today, he discussed multistage rockets, space stations, space colonies, and even space elevators. In the two or three decades following the turn of the century, other theorists added to what Tsiolkovsky had done. Hermann Oberth in Germany wrote his doctoral thesis on rocketry in 1922. This became the basis for his 'rst book, The Rocket in Planetary Space, which was expanded in 1929. This book, which explained in meticulous detail how multistage rockets could escape the earth's gravitational pull and travel into space, gained Oberth international acclaim, especially after Max Valier, himself a pioneering experimenter in rocketry, created a popular edition of Oberth's ideas. PIONEERS Many of these early pioneers'Hohmann, Hoe't, Tsander, Winkler, Tiling, Esnault-Pelterie, Pendray, Shesta, and others'have been relegated to footnotes in the history of spaceflight, but all carried on when the mere idea of flying into space was ridiculed. They were, after all, working at a time when the 'rst aircraft were fragile machines making their 'rst tentative leaps into the air. But little by little they laid the foundations upon which modern astronautics was built. The invention of the liquid-fuel rocket in 1926 by Robert Goddard proved to be the key to escaping the bonds of the earth. Even at that, it was another thirty years before the 'rst arti'cial earth satellite'a 184lb (83.4kg) sphere'orbited the earth, and an additional four years before a human being did the same. At around the same time that Goddard was working largely in secret, rocket societies were being founded in the United States, England, Germany, and Russia. Some of these focused on theoretical work or the popularization of spaceflight, while others indulged in practical experiments, working out the 'ne (if often hazardous) details of rocket propulsion and developing important improvements in materials and engineering. The work of the German society led directly to the development of the world's 'rst large ballistic missile, the legendary V-2, which in turn was the direct ancestor of the rockets that launched the 'rst American satellites and astronauts into space. Once it became possible to leave the earth and explore the universe around it, most of this exploration was initially done by robots: semiintelligent machines that sent back pictures and data from the moon and planets. This was exciting and the information was vital to science. A satellite in orbit sending back pictures of the earth below, however, is not the same as an astronaut walking on the moon, camera in hand, aboard an orbiting Space Shuttle. No one can deny that robot explorers are much cheaper than sending humans into space and no one's life is ever at risk with the robot option. But that's not how humans like to explore. We have always wanted to see things 'rsthand, to witness a strange new landscape with our own eyes, to pick up a rock with our own hands. And there are advantages to human exploration, the biggest ones being human intelligence and human curiosity. No machine'at least not one we can make now'will ever come to the base of a hill and think, 'I wonder what's on the other side'? This book is about the people and machines that enabled humans to take those 'rst, tentative steps away from our home world. INTRODUCTION A manuscript drawing from the 1920s by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky depicts a two-stage spaceship and the method of launching it from an inclined ramp. The idea of staged spaceships became fundamental to the future of spaceflight. The key advantage of the staged spacecraft is that the mass of the spacecraft decreases with each stage separation. In the early 1930s, Robert Goddard (far right) developed highly advanced liquid-fuel rockets, some of which were successfully launched from his research station in New Mexico.
13 INTRODUCTION A V-2 rocket just after launch at the White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico. The German wartime missile would have a profound influence on future American space exploration. The crew of Apollo 15, the fourth to land on the moon, were equipped with a lunar rover that allowed them to roam 17.5 miles (28km) from the Lunar Module Falcon. During a sunset launch of Atlantis in February, 2001, the shadow of the Space Shuttle's exhaust trail eems to be symbolically reaching for the distant moon.
Chapter One Almost immediately following Galileo Galilei's discovery in the early 17th century that there were worlds other than the earth, writers began imagining how it might be possible to visit them. Much of this was driven by the recent discovery of new worlds on our own earth, such as the Americas. If it was possible to visit those far-away places, it was reasoned, it could only be a matter of time before the new planets in space would be explored. (Left) A hoax perpetrated in 1835 by the New York Sun convinced thousands that life had been discovered on the moon. Although the joke was quickly revealed, this did not stop newspapers and magazines around the world from copying and even expanding on it. This Italian lithograph depicts explorers returning from the moon, their vehicle steered by bevies of winged moon-creatures. (Above) A woodcut from 1490 depicts an astronomer and a theologian debating the nature of the universe. THE DREAMERS
Ube ntil the invention of the astronomical telescope by Galileo Galilei in 1610, the dome of the heavens was thought to no great distance from the earth, and the sun and the moon were regarded as the only other material bodies in our universe. A few of the early Greek philosopher-scientists did speculate on the relative distances of the sun, moon, and planets, such as Anaximander in 600 BCE. Pythagoras and Aristotle also both theorized that the moon might be spherical. Yet these and other concepts were all based on quantitative measurements'little thought, if any, was given as to what the moon actually was. When it was considered, however, speculation knew few limits. Anaximander thought that the moon might be a kind of 'ery chariot wheel and Anaxagoras suggested that it was an incandescent solid (albeit with 'plains, mountains, and ravines'). But by the time Plutarch was writing (1st'2nd centuries BCE), foundations for a thousand-year-long Dark Ages were being laid. During that bleak millennium, it was dangerous even to suggest that the earth was not the center of the universe, that there might be other worlds than this one, and that the moon was anything other than a perfect, pristine sphere (God would be incapable of creating anything less than ideal). If the moon showed spots, these were nothing but the reflection of our own imperfect world in its mirror-like surface. Change and decay were limited to the earth; the heavens were immutable and eternal. One literally took one's life in one's hands to question any of this. Galileo's revelation changed all of that forever. He immediately realized that the moon was not a pristine disk or sphere, but rather a world as imperfect as our own, with undulations, 16 16 The Dreamers EVER SINCE HUMAN BEINGS LOOKED UP AT THE NIGHT SKY AND REALIZED THAT SOME OF THOSE TWINKLING LIGHTS WERE IN FACT OTHER WORLDS'PERHAPS OTHER WORLDS LIKE THIS ONE? THEY WANTED TO GO THERE AND SEE FOR THEMSELVES. The cosmos and the heavens as visualized by the Egyptians were to be viewed more symbolically and imaginatively than literally. Here the stars are wrapped around the 'gures of gods and men. 'SHIPS AND SAILS PROPER FOR THE HEAVENLY AIR SHOULD BE FASHIONED. THEN THERE WILL ALSO BE PEOPLE, WHO DO NOT SHRINK FROM THE DREARY VASTNESS OF SPACE.' JOHANNES KEPLER TO GALILEO GALILEI, 1609 The Judeo-Christian concept of our planet was based on the Babylonian idea of a structural universe, that of a flat earth covered by a vast, solid dome in which the stars and planets are embedded. valleys, plains, and hundreds of odd, circular ring mountains and craters. The Church forced Galileo to recant his discoveries and his interpretations of them, but the damage had already been done. When human beings looked skyward, they no longer saw abstract points of light attached to a dome a few miles over their heads. They saw the in'nite possibilities of new worlds occupying a universe of almost unimaginable size. NEW WORLDS While Galileo was discovering new worlds in the sky, there were other new worlds being discovered right here on Earth. Hundreds of ships and thousands of explorers, colonists, soldiers, priests, and adventurers were crossing the oceans, discovering amazingly fertile, rich, and strange territories. Now they learned that an Italian scientist had revealed the sky to be full of unfamilar lands, too. Here were not just new continents, but whole new Earths'Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the moon'which could be seen by anyone and even mapped. Whole new planets, with unimaginable continents and riches, became visible . . . yet there was no way to touch them! They were like succulent bananas dangling just beyond the reach of a monkey. It is little wonder that Galileo's discoveries could not be suppressed. Their publication was quickly followed by a spate of space travel stories: The Man in the Moone (1638), Voyage to the Moon (1657), A Voyage to the World of Cartesius (1694), Iter Lunaire (1703), John Daniel (c. 1700), Microm'gas (1752), and countless others, including Johannes Kepler's Somnium (1634), the 'rst science-'ction tale written by a scientist. There were poems, songs, stage plays, and sermons, INTRODUCTION
This 1851 diagram illustrates what was known of the solar system at the beginning of the 19th century. In the corners are depicted the ideas of (clockwise from upper left) Ptolemy, the Egyptians, Tycho Brahe and Copernicus. The Christian concept of the universe, in which the sun, moon, planets, and stars circled a stationary earth, is depicted in this German engraving from 1493, just 'fty years before Copernicus published his theory. 17 THE DREAMERS 17 all inspired by the possibility of traveling to the new worlds in the sky. If there was no way to reach them in reality, it could at least be done imaginatively. Francis Godwin's novel The Man in the Moone (1638) was the 'rst interplanetary journey in English literature. His science, however, was very much behind the time in which he wrote. This is particularly true in his descriptions of the conditions of outer space. But his real genius was the method used for getting his hero to the moon: he is carried there by a gaggle of ganzas, a peculiar species of swan that regularly makes lunar migrations. There were so many such stories published, with such increasingly improbable methods of traveling to the moon, that eventually Cyrano de Bergerac felt compelled to ridicule the entire literature. In Histoire Comique: Contenant les Etats et Empires de la Lune (Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon; 1657), he has his hero trying to escape the earth by the most ridiculous means de Bergerac could imagine. For instance, knowing that the sun draws dew up into the sky, he attaches bottles of dew to his waist'and is immediately lifted into the heavens. FLYING CHARIOTS Bishop John Wilkins, however, had no personal doubts that these voyages would eventually be made. In the second edition (1640) of his A Discourse Concerning a New World and Another Planet: The First Book, The Discovery of a New World, he discussed the need for 'flying-chariots? to take men to the moon. 'I do seriously, and upon good grounds a'rm it possible to make a flying-chariot; in which a man may sit, and give such motion unto it, as shall convey him through the air. And this perhaps might be made large enough to carry divers men at the same time, together with food for their viaticum, and commodities for tra'c.' Wilkins even suggested the possibility of colonizing the moon: 'It is the opinion of Keplar [sic], that as soon as the art of flying is found out, some of their nation will make one of the 'rst colonies that shall transplant into that other world'.' Galileo's discoveries, and the discoveries other great astronomers were soon making in the night skies'the rings of Saturn, Saturn's great moon Titan, the dusky markings on Mars, and even a new planet, Uranus'had a profound e'ect on the future evolution of the spaceship, in addition to inspiring the need for such a machine. Since the moon and planets were now known to be real worlds, it was no longer possible to employ them as merely metaphorical symbols. It was one thing to speak of visiting a vast mirrored disk suspended in the heavens, a disk that, so far as anyone knew, had no real physical existence. Now that the moon was known to be a real place, a place with a solid surface and a landscape just like Earth, transportation there could not be shrugged o? onto some vaguely described magic. If an author wanted to write seriously about traveling to the moon or planets, then the method of getting there had to have at least the ring of plausibility. Even Godwin with his fantastic moon-bound swans was compelled to add such materialistic and realistic details as the construction of the birds? harnesses and the framework that bound them together. He even computed their top speed. Cyrano de Bergerac, although writing a burlesque, felt constrained to limit himself to realistic-sounding if pseudoscienti'c methods of spaceflight. Though he was striving for strictly comic e'ects, it is important to note that none of his methods depended upon magic or the supernatural. He took a great deal of care in describing the fantastic devices he used in his attempts to travel to the sun and moon, even managing to stumble, however accidentally, upon the use of rockets. (Although de Bergerac was the 'rst to suggest the use of rockets as a means for leaving Earth, he doesn't get full marks since he was trying to think of the most ridiculous methods of travel he could conceive.) What these and many other authors of the time were discovering was verisimilitude'the evocation of a sense of reality by the use of masses of convincing detail, or convincingsounding detail, at least. This was a technique brought to perfection by Edgar Allan Poe and honed to a 'ne polish by Jules Verne. In spite of all this mental activity, the writers of space travel stories before the end of the 1700s were groping in the dark: there simply was no realistic method by which a human being could rise more than a few feet above the surface of the earth, let alone to the moon. 'I WHOSE AMBITION LEADS ME NOT ONLY FARTHER THAN ANY OTHER MAN HAS BEEN BEFORE ME, BUT AS FAR AS I THINK IT POSSIBLE FOR MAN TO GO . . .' CAPTAIN JAMES COOK, 1730
INDEX 250 A 1930s British Interplanetary Society 100'101 1940s British Interplanetary Society 102'103 1940s pop culture 104'105 1950s golden age 120'167 1950s pop culture 104'105, 132'137 2001: A Space Odyssey 178'179, 230 Abbott and Costello Go to Mars 148 The Adventures of Baron Munchhausen 24 'Aerojet Training Spaceship? 133 aircraft 1950s golden age 120'121, 156, 164'167 experimenters 78'81 spaceplanes 55, 95, 108'113, 141, 164, 167, 174, 197'199, 208, 212'217 WWII 116'117 Alcubierre, Miguel 209 Altair lander 241 Amazing Stories 70'71 American Astronautical Society 66'67 American Interplanetary Society/American Rocket Society/ARS 55, 66'67, 73, 144'145, 157 amusement park rides 43 Anaximander 16 Anderson, Orvil 91 Andreev, Yevgeny 91 Angle, Ellwyn 156'157 animals 10, 36, 170, 175, 177, 209 Ansari, Anousheh 208, 226 Ansari XPrize 208, 222'225 anti-gravity vehicles 10, 29, 38'42, 64, 123 antimatter 218'219 Apollo missions 13, 101'102, 114'115, 138'139, 155, 161, 165, 171, 180, 186'191 Apollo-Soyuz Test Project 57, 190'191 Ares launch vehicle 233, 236, 240 Aria, Federico G'mez 115 Aristotle 16 Armadillo Aerospace 223 Armstrong, Neil 165 ARS see American Interplanetary Society/ American Rocket Society artificial satellites 32'33, 106'107, 144'145, 159, 170'176 artwork see individual artists Asimov, Isaac 73, 104'105 Astor, John Jacob 40 Astronaut 29, 54 Atkinson, Simon 178 Atlas 138, 170, 177 atomic power see nuclear spaceships A Voyage to Cacklogallinia 24 B Ba 349A (M-23) Natter 116 Bacon, Roger 20'21 ballistic missiles 138'139, 162, 170, 176 balloons early fiction 25 exploration 35 invention of 27'28, 34'35 stratosphere balloons 82, 90'91 Bell, Alexander Graham 82 Bell X-1 rocket plane 121, 156, 164 Bell X-2 rocket plane 165 Bereznyak-Isayev BI-1 airplane 117 Bergerac, Cyrano de 17, 24 Berget, Alphonse 55, 64 Beyond the Planet Earth 57 Billick, Earl 167 BIS see British Interplanetary Society BOMI (Bomber Missile) rocket 110, 128'129 Bonestell, Chesley 124, 127, 135, 148'149 Bono, Philip 219 boosters 200'203, 210'211 Boushey, Homer A. 117 Brahe, Tycho 17 Branson, Richard 228 Bredt, Irene 108'110 The Brick Moon 29, 32'33 British Interplanetary Society (BIS) 55, 66 artificial satellites 170 Project Adam 140'141 rocket race WWII 95, 99'103, 106 space stations 182'183 Brown, John Young 43, 64 Buck Rogers 53, 84'87 Buran (Snowstorm) 210'211 Burnelli, Vincent 196 Burney, Edward Francis 44'45 Bush, Vannevar 95 Bussard ramjet 221 Bussard, Robert 245 C Calkins, Dick 84 Camp, L. Sprague de 73 Canadian Arrow 222 Captain 'Space? Kingley 135 Captain Video 137 Carpenter, M. Scott 174, 177 cars, rockets 76'77 cartoons 53, 76'77, 84'87 Cazin, Achille 76 Chester, Michael 243 Chinese gunpowder 20'21 A Christmas Dinner with the Man in the Moon 29, 38 Church 16, 18 civilian travel 28'29, 208, 226'229 Clarke, Arthur C. 73, 178, 209 Cleator, P. E. 100 Cole, Dandridge 219, 247 Colliers magazine 124'127, 136, 152 Comic History 24 Command Modules 186, 198'199 commercial spaceflight 208, 222'225, 228'229 Condit, Robert 62 Conquest of Space (1955) 130, 136 'Constellation? 240 control, rockets 23 Cook, James 17 Cooper, L. Gordon 177 Copernicus, Nicholaus 17'19 Crabbe, Buster 87 Cromie, Robert 40 crowdfunding 243 CubeSat 243 Cutter, James 183 D Daedalus spacecraft 247 Dan Dare 135 Dart, Harry Grant 43 DC-Y Delta Clipper spacecraft 195 Destination Moon 74, 104'105, 120, 130'131 Die Rakete 66, 69 Dime novels 41 directional control, rockets 23 Disneyland Park 158'159 Disney's 'Man in Space? series 132, 152'153 docking techniques 180'181, 190'191 Doctor Who 231 Dolgov, Pyotr 91 Dollens 150 Dor', Gustave 24 Dornberger, Walter 110, 120 Douglas Aircraft 106 Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket 121 Dream Chaser 217, 223 DreamSpace Wild Fire MKVI 223 Dyna-Soar program 141'143 E EARL project 215 early fiction 16'17, 24'26, 122 early launch vehicles 138'139 early Space Shuttle concepts 198'199 earth orbits 106'107, 170 Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) 236'237 earth satellites 12, 32, 106, 120, 139, 144, 154, 162'163, 171, 176 Egyptians 17 Ehricke, Krafft 110, 120, 128'129 electric spacecraft 122'123, 144'145, 221 Energia booster 210'211 engineers 27'51 fiction 27'51 first nuclear spaceships 49 pioneers 28'31 scientists 48 space guns 44'47 Victorian spaceships 17, 28'29, 34, 36'43 Enzmann type starships 245'247 ERV see Earth Return Vehicle ESA see European Space Agency Esnault-Pelterie, Robert 49, 55, 60 Espenlaub, Gottlob and Hans 79 Estes, Vernon 83
INDEX 251 Estorch, Miguel 44 European Space Agency (ESA) 196, 214'215 EVA see extravehicular activities exhibitions 50, 60'61 experimenters 52'92 fiction 54'59, 64'65, 70'75, 77'78, 80'81, 84'89 liquid-fuel rockets 55'59 rocketeers 62'63 rockets 54'89 Soviet Spaceflight Expo (1927) 60'61 Explorer 162'163, 171 extravehicular activities (EVA) 180'181 F Faure, G. Le 242 Ferrier, Arthur 77 Fezandi', Clement 65 fiction 1950s golden age 120, 122'127 balloons 34'35 early works 16'17, 24'26, 122 electric spacecraft 122'123 engineers 27'51 experimenters 54'59, 64'65, 70'75, 77'78, 80'81, 84'89 pop culture 104'105, 132'137 pulp fiction 70'73, 104'105 scientific realism 28'29 space guns 44'47 space stations 182'183 space suits 115 starships 72'73 theoretical concepts 29 Victorian spaceships 17, 28'29, 34, 36'43 see also magazines films 54'55, 69 1950s golden age 133, 146'151 2001: A Space Odyssey 178'179, 230 Destination Moon 74, 104'105, 120, 130'131 Frau im Mond (Girl in the Moon) 74'75 modern spaceships 230'231 pop culture 104 space suits 115 Weltraumschiff 1 Startet (Spaceship Number 1 Starts) 88'89 Firefly 230 fireworks 20'21 first nuclear spaceships 49 'First World Exhibition of Interplanetary Apparatus and Mechanisms', Moscow 60'61 Fischer, Otto 63 Flash Gordon 84'87, 137 'Flight Ninety? 167 Flight to Mars 148 flying-chariots 17 Folie, Louis Guillaume de la 122 Forbidden Planet 149 France 8'10, 28'29, 34, 39, 49, 55, 60, 82'83, 122, 135'136, 242 Frau im Mond (Girl in the Moon) 74'75 Freas, Frank Kelly 185 Freeman, Fred 124'125 French model rocket 82'83 Fresco, Jacque 148 Friede 74'75 fusion 218'219 future concepts 208'249 propulsion 218'221 Space Shuttle 210'217 G Gagarin, Yuri 121, 171'173 Gail, Otto Willi 54, 70, 88'89 Galileo Galilei 16'19, 24 Galopin, Arnould 39 Ganswindt, Hermfann 29, 48 Gemini program 180'181, 185 generation starships 72'73, 105, 209 German Verein f'r Raumschiffahrt (VfR) 55, 66, 94 Germany directional control 23 experimenters 56, 60, 63, 66'69, 83, 88'89 golden age 121'122, 148 models 83 pioneers 12'13 rocket aircraft 78'79 rocket invention 10'12 rocket race WWII 94'95, 108'113, 116 rocket societies 66 scientists/engineers 48 spaceplanes 214'215 theoretical concepts 29 Gernsback, Hugo 54'55, 64, 70'71, 123 Girl in the Moon 74'75 Gladden, Washington 29, 38 Glenn, John H. Jr 177 Glenn Research Center 236 gliding flights 196'197 Gloria 79 Goddard, Robert 12, 23, 55, 58'60, 70'71, 78, 94, 242'243 Godwin, Francis 17, 25 Godwin, Rob 101 golden age 120'167 Golightly, Charles 27, 30'31 Goodrich, B. F. 115 Google Lunar XPrize 224 Graffigny, Henry de 45, 82, 242 gravity anti-gravity vehicles 10, 29, 38'42, 64, 123 challenges 182'183 slingshots 72 theoretical concepts 29 Greek philosopher-scientists 16, 18 Greg, Percy 29, 40 Griffith, George 42 Grissom, Virgil I. 174, 176'177 Grousset, Jean Fran'ois Paschal 38 Gulliver Joi 30 gunpowder 20'21 H Haas, Conrad 29 Haber, Heinz 124 Hale, Edward Everett 29, 32'33 Hans Pfaall 28 Hardy, David A. 103 Harryhausen, Ray 148 heat, space suits 114'115 Heinkel He-176 rocket aircraft 116 Heinlein, Robert 72'73, 105, 130'131, 148 Hermes 214'215 Hero, rocket mechanisms 23 hi-tech space guns 46'47 HL-20 personnel launch system 213 Hoeppner, Helmut 244 HOTOL (Horizontal Take Off and Landing) spaceplane 215 Houbolt, John 187 Hsueh-Sen, Tsien 99 Hudson, Gary 195 Hungerford brothers 76 hydrogen propulsion 237 I Icarus II of Sunshine 231 ICBM see intercontinental ballistic missiles Imperial-class Star Destroyer 230 inflatable space stations 183 intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) 138'139, 162, 170, 176 International Space Station (ISS) 170, 183'185, 202, 226 Interstellar 231 invention balloons 27'28, 34'35 rockets 20'21, 28'29 investment 120 ion propulsion 122'123, 144'145, 221 Irvine, Mat 167 Isbell, B. Spencer 244 ISS see International Space Station J Jacob, L'on 55, 64 Jane, Fred T. 42 Japan future concepts 226, 228, 243 rocket race WWII 95, 116 solar sails 243 toys 137, 161 WWII rocket race 96, 116'117 Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) 215 JATO see Jet-Assisted Takeoff JAXA see Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Jet-Assisted Takeoff (JATO) 79, 120 Johnson, R. J. 137 Juno rocket 162, 170 Jupiter-C rocket 163, 170 Jupiter explorations 208 K Kaplan, Joseph 124 Kessler, Frido W. 79 Kibalchich, Nicolai 48 Kindermann, Eberhard Christian 25 Kistler 1 212 kits 82'83, 156 Kittinger, Joseph 90'91 Klep, Rolf 124'125 Korolev, Sergei 171 Krasnogorskii, B. 45, 82, 242'243 Kregar, Simon 189
252 INDEX Kubasov, Valeri 191 Kubrick's, Stanley 178'179 Kutter, Anton 88'89 L Lach-Szyrma 38 Lange, Harry H-K 178 Lasser, David 73 Lasswitz, Kurd 68 launch vehicles 1950s golden age 138'139, 162 dreams to reality 170, 172'173, 189 future concepts 208, 211'212, 232, 240 orbits 107 see also Space Shuttle Law, F. Rodman 62 Lent, Constantin P. 156'157 Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module 203 Leonov, Alexey 191'192 Ley, Willy 94'95, 104, 124, 137 Liberty Bell 7 rocket 176 lifting bodies 196'197 Lindbergh, Charles 58, 121 Lippisch, Dr. Alexander 79 liquid-fuel propulsion 1950s golden age 120 Buran (Snowstorm) 210 cars 77 experimenters 55'59 mechanisms of 22'23 World War II 94 Lockheed Martin X-33 VentureStar spaceplane 213 Loebell, Ernst 66 Loewy, Raymond 45 long-term spaceflight effects 180'181, 184'185 Lunar landers 155, 186, 224 Lunar Excursion Module 187, 189 Luna spaceship 50'51 Lunex 154 Lusser, Robert, Apollo 186 Luther, Martin 18 M McClure, Clifton M. 91 McDonnell Douglas 199 McEwen, W. W. 82 magazines 1950s 120, 124'127, 132'137 Colliers magazine 124'127, 136 pop culture 104'105, 132'137 pulp spaceships 70'73 space stations 182'183 see also fiction Magnetized Beam Plasma Propulsion system 221 MALLIR (Manned Lunar Landing Involving Rendezvous) lander 186 manned ballistic rockets 140'141 Manned Earth-satellite Terminal with Earth Orbital Rocket (METEOR) 144'145, 159, 198 Manned Lunar Landing Involving Rendezvous (MALLIR) lander 186 'Man in Space? television series 152'153 Marietta, Martin 198 Mars Direct plan 236 Mars exploration 208, 234'239 Mars Habitat Unit (MHU) 236 Marshall Space Flight Center 199 Mars One 208 Martin Model 410 Lunar Direct lander 155 Masters, Tony 178 Megaroc. A 99, 140'141 M'li's, Georges 54 Men into Space 132'133 Mercury-Atlas series 177 Mercury capsule 98'99, 115, 128, 174'177 Messerschmitt-B'lkow-Blohm (MBB) 113 Messerschmitt Me-163Vl Komet rocket plane 116 METEOR (Manned Earth-satellite Terminal with Earth Orbital Rocket) 144'145, 159, 198 MHU see Mars Habitat Unit Millennium Falcon 230 Miller, Ron 125, 243 Miller, Tom 247 Million Miles to Earth 148 Millis, Marc 209 Minimum Orbital Unmanned Satellite of Earth (MOUSE) 107, 170 Miral-Viger 55, 64 Mir space station 184'185, 208, 226 Mitchell, John Ames 40 models 82'83 modern movie spaceships 230'231 Mongols 20'21 Montgolfier brothers 28, 34 Moon 1950s golden age 154'155 balloon 34'35 return to 232'233 Soviet Union 192'193 space guns 44'47 MOUSE see Minimum Orbital Unmanned Satellite of Earth (MOUSE) movies see films Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, Orion 240 multi-staged rockets, early inventions 29 museums 173 music, 1950s golden age 135 N NACA see National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics NASA see National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 121, 166'167 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 1950s golden age 121 Apollo 186'191 dreams to reality 171 lifting bodies 196'197 Marshall Space Flight Center 47 Mercury evolution 174'175 Orion vehicles 208, 219, 236, 239'241, 249 Nebel, Rudolf 63 Nephew, William 243 Neubronner, Carl 82'83 Newton, Isaac 22'23, 32, 220 New York World's Fair (1939) 45 Nikolayev, Andriyan 174 nonprofit company Mars One 208 Noordung, Hermann 70, 102, 114'115, 182'183 North American Aviation 106 Northrop Aviation 120 Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander XCHALLENGE 224 Northrup, Edward Fitch 47, 106 Nova lunar landing program 155 Nowlan, Philip Francis 84, 87 nuclear propulsion 218'221 BIS 1940s 102'103 bomb propulsion 219'220 Ehricke's 129 first 49 fusion 218'219, 237 Mars explorations 237'238 O Oberth, Hermann 53'54, 68'71, 74'75, 122, 186 Ohka rocket plane 117 Olsen, Gregory 226 orbital maneuvering lifting bodies 196'197 Project Gemini 180'181 single-stage-to-orbit rockets 194'195 see also Space Shuttle Orbital Sciences? unpiloted X-34 213 orbiting the earth, rocket race 106'107 orbits Copernicus & Galileo 18'19 dreams to reality 170'171, 174'177, 179'187, 190'191, 194'202, 204'205 experimenters 54, 56'57 future concepts 208'215, 217, 223, 226, 228, 232'233, 235'236, 238'249 golden age 120'121, 125'126, 135'136, 140'144, 151'156, 159'162, 167 Newton 32 pioneers 12 WWII rocket race 95, 98'99, 103, 106'113 Ordway, Frederick I. 178 organization, formation 55 Orion vehicles 208, 219, 236, 239'241, 249 outer solar system travel 209 P Pal, George 130, 136, 148 Pan-American Exposition 50 passenger carrying craft 28'29, 208, 226'229 Paul, Frank R. 45, 54'55, 183, 247 Pendray, G. Edward 67, 73, 95 Perce, Elbert 30 Phoenix SSTO 195 Piccard, Auguste 82, 90 Pickering, William 163 pioneering engineers 28'31 Planetary Society 243 Plutarch 16 Poe, Edgar Allan 17, 28, 34'35 Polaris 150, 161, 170 pop culture 104'105, 132'137 popular science magazines 70'73 Poseidon missiles 170
INDEX 253 Post, Wiley 115 Potocnik, Herman see Noordung, Hermann Pratt, Fletcher 182 pressure, space suits 114'115 private industry commercial spaceflight 208, 222'225, 228'229 Project Adam 140'141 'Project Bumper? experiments 106, 120, 170 Project Gemini 180'181, 185 Project Horizon 155 Project Manhigh 90'91 'Project Mercury? 174'177 Project Moonbase 148 Project Orbiter 170'171 Project RAND 106'107 propulsion future concepts 218'221 ion propulsion 122'123, 144'145, 221 solid fuel 22, 80, 200'203 see also liquid-fuel; nuclear... protective space suits 114'115 Ptolemy 17 pulp fiction 70'73, 104'105 pulp spaceships 70'73 Pythagoras 16 R Radar Men from the Moon 150 Rawlings, Pat 47, 224'225, 249 Raymond, Alex 84 Redstone 138, 140, 170 religion 16, 18 rendezvous and docking techniques 180'181 resonant microwave cavities 209 reusable launch vehicles, see also Space Shuttle 'Reusable Orbital Module-Booster & Utility Shuttle? (ROMBUS) 194 reusable, vertical takeoff and landing STTOs 194'195 Richardson, Robert 135 RKK Energiya Museum, Moscow 173 Road to the Stars 149 rocket aircraft 1950s golden age 120'121, 156, 164'167 experimenters 78'81 WWII 116'117 rocketeer experimenters 62'63 Rocket-Jet Flying 157 The Rocket in Planetary Space 66, 69 rocket-powered research 120'121 rocket race, World War II 94'117 'Rocket Racer? 160'161 rockets aircraft 78'81, 116'117, 120'121, 164'167 cars 76'77 control 23 directional control 23 early fiction 24'26 experimenters 54'89 Goddard 55, 58'59 invention 20'21, 28'29 mechanisms of 22'23 models 82'83 Oberth, Hermann 53'54, 68'69 rocketeers 62'63 sleds 76'77 societies 66'67 solid fuel 22, 80 Tsiolkovsky 46, 54'57 Valier 54, 60'61, 68, 71, 76, 79'81 see also individual rockets/programs Rocketship X-M 150 Rocket Trip through Space 133 Rockwood, Roy 64 Rocky Jones: Space Ranger 150 Roman, R. H. 47, 54 ROMBUS see 'Reusable Orbital ModuleBooster & Utility Shuttle? Romick, Darrell 144'145, 159, 198 Rosen, Milton 155 Ross, H. E. 103, 182 Roswell station 59 rovers, Apollo 189 RT-8-01 craft 110 Ruggieri, Claude 29 Russia 1950s golden age 139, 162'163 high-altitude balloons 91 Soviet Spaceflight Expo (1927) 60'61 see also Soviet Union Rutan, Burt 222, 228 S sails, solar 242'243 Salyut space stations 183'184 Sample, Fred M. 114 Sander, Friedrich 78 S'nger, Eugen 55, 108'113 satellites 32'33, 106'107, 144'145, 159, 170'176 earth 12, 32, 106, 120, 139, 144, 154, 162'163, 171, 176 Satellite in the Sky 150 Saturday afternoon serials 134 Saturn explorations 208 Saturn IB rocket 187 Saturn V rocket 186 scaling up model rockets 83 Scarfo, Roy 219, 247 Schirra, Walter M. Jr 177 Schomburg, Alex 247 Schwenk, F. Carl 155 scientific realism fiction 28'29 scientists engineers 48 see also individual scientists second-generation Space Shuttle 212'217 Service Module, Apollo 186 Serviss, Garrett P. 39, 42, 49 Sharman, Helen 226 Shawyer, Roger 209 Shenzhou spacecraft 171 Shepard, Alan 98, 171, 174, 177 Shuttle orbiter 204'205 Shuttleworth, Mark 226 'silver bird? 108'109 Simons, David G. 91 Simonyi, Charles 226 Singer, S. Fred 170 single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rockets 194'195 'skip flying? 108 Skylab space station 183'185 SkyRocket 217 Slayton, Donald K. 177 sleds, rockets 76'77 slingshots, gravity 72 Smith, E. E. 'Doc? 71'72 Smith, R. A. 100, 103, 182'183 Snowstorm 210'211 societies 55, 66'67, 94 Society for Spaceship Travel 55, 66, 94 solar sails 242'243 solid fuel propulsion 22, 80, 200'203 Soviet Union 1950s golden age 121 Buran (Snowstorm) 210'211 dreams to reality 170'174, 183, 190'193 rocket race WWII 99 rocket society 67 Spaceflight Expo (1927) 60'61 spaceplanes 214 see also Russia Soyuz vehicles 57, 190'191 Space Adventures 226'227 Spaceballs 231 space guns 44'47 2001: A Space Odyssey 178'179, 230 Space Patrol 121, 132, 137, 150, 160'161 spaceplanes 55, 95, 108'113, 141, 164, 167, 174, 197'199, 208, 212'217 space program, 1950s golden age 121 Spaceship Company 228 Spaceship Number 1 Starts 88'89 SpaceShipOne 222'223, 226'227 SpaceShipTwo 228 Space Shuttle Buran (Snowstorm) 210 dreams to reality 171 early concepts 198'199 evolution of 200'205 future concepts 210'217 ISS 185 retirement 208 Sanger & Brendt 108, 110'113 second-generation 212'217 space stations 1950s golden age 128'129, 136'137 BIS 1940s 102 dreams to reality 182'185 Ehricke's 128'129 gravity challenges 182'183 space suits 114'115 Space Transportation System (STS) see Space Shuttle SpaceX Dragon 223 Sputnik 139, 162'163, 171 SSTO see single-stage-to-orbit rockets staged craft, Dyna-Soar program 141'143 Stamer, Fritz 78 Stapp, John Paul 90 Star Clipper, Space Shuttle 199 starships fiction 72'73 technology 244'247 Star Trek's NCC-1701 Enterprise 230 Star Wars 230 Steel Pier Rocket Glider 79 Stefano, Antonio 46 Sternbach, Rick 243, 245 Sternfeld, Ary 214 Stevens, Albert 91
254 INDEX Stevens, Nick 113, 192'194, 211, 243 Stine, G. Harry 83, 159 stratosphere balloons 82, 90'91 Stuhlinger, Ernst 122'123, 186 A Swift Journey by Airship to the Upper World 25 T T4-A craft 110 telescopes 18'19 television 1950s golden age 132'134, 148, 151'153 pop culture 104, 132'134 theatre 50'51 theoretical concepts 29 Third Law of Motion 22'23, 32, 220 This Island Earth 149 Thompson, Frederick 50'51 Thompson, Milt 166, 197 thrust 22'23 Tikhonravov, Mikhail K. 95 Tiling, Reinhold 53 Tinsley, Frank 123, 244 Tintin adventures 135 Titan booster 141, 170 Tito, Dennis 208, 226 Titov, Gherman 174 Tofto, Holger 186 Tolstoy, Alexei 65 'tomato worm? pressure suits 115 Tom Corbett Space Cadet 132, 137 Tomorrowland, Disneyland Park 158'159 toys 84'85, 136'137, 160'161 Train, Arthur 49, 54 Treaty of Versailles 94 'A Trip to the Moon? 50'51 A True History 24 Tsander, Fridrikh A. 55, 60'61, 242 Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin 46, 54'57, 60, 183, 242 turboprop airliners 78 TWA Moonliner 158'159 U United States (USA) 1950s golden age 120'121, 154'155 dreams to reality 170'171, 174'191, 194'205 Dyna-Soar program 141'143 early launch vehicles 138'139 Project Manhigh 90'91 rocket race WWII 95, 98'99, 116 'World Circling Space Ship? 107 V V-2 rockets 94'99, 120, 170 Valier, Max 46, 54, 60'61, 68, 71, 76, 79'81, 217 Valigursky, Ed 200 Van Allen, James 163 Vanguard rocket 162 variants Sanger derivatives 110'113 V-2 98'99 VentureStar 195 Verein f'r Raumschiffahrt (VfR) 55, 66, 94 Verne, Jules 17, 28'29, 34, 36'37, 44'46, 50 Victorian spaceships 17, 28'29, 34, 36'43 Viking 138, 170 Virgin Galactic 228'229 Von Braun, Wernher 67 1950s golden age 120, 124, 154'155, 162'163 Apollo 186 dreams to reality 170'171 rocket race WWII 94'96, 98 Von Hanstein, Otfrid 70 Von Hoefft, Franz 12, 55 Von Opel, Fritz 78, 198 Von Pirquet, Guido 46 Vostok 171'173 W warp drive 209, 220 weightlessness 69 Weinbaum, Stanley 72'73 Wells, H. G. 29, 39, 45 Weltraumschiff 1 Startet 88'89 When Worlds Collide 148 Whipple, Fred L. 124 White, Ed 181 WhiteKnightTwo 228 White, William 91 Wiley, Carl A. 243 Wilkins, John 17 Winkler, Johannes 66, 94 Wood, Robert 49, 54 'World Circling Space Ship? 107 World War II, rocket race 94'117 wormholes 220 Worth, Thomas 45 X X-15 program 121, 166'167 X-33 VentureStar spaceplane 213 X-34 213 XCOR's Lynx 208 X-planes 156, 164'167 XPrize competition 208, 222'227 Y Yeager, Chuck 121, 164'165 Z Zubrin, Robert 236 Zulawsk, Jerzy 41 Space elevators'such as this one illustrated by Richard Bizley'would provide a cheap, easy, and reliable means for transporting personnel and supplies to spacecraft.
INDEX / RESOURCES / ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 255 RESOURCES / ACKNOWLEDGMENTS MUSEUMS Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center, Hutchinson, KA: www.cosmo.org Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, FL: www.kennedyspacecenter.com National Museum of the Air Force, Dayton, OH: www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/ Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC: http://airandspace.si.edu WEBSITES Collect Space: www.collectspace.com Dreams of Space: http://dreamsofspace.blogspot.com Encyclopedia Astronautica: www.astronautix.com NASA History: http://history.nasa.gov Rogers Rocketships: www.rogersrocketships.com SELECT BOOKS Baker, D., The History of Manned Spaceflight (Crown, NY: 1981) Bonestell, Chesley, The Conquest of Space (Viking, NY: 1949) Bono, Philip, and Kenneth Gatland, Frontiers of Space (MacMillan, London: 1976) Collier's ed., Across the Space Frontier (Viking, NY: 1953) Collier's ed., Conquest of the Moon (Viking, NY: 1952) Collier's ed., The Exploration of Mars (Viking, NY: 1956) Dornberger, Walter, V-2 (Hurst & Blackett, London: 1954) Gatland, Kenneth, Space Technology (Harmony, NY: 1981) Hardy, David A., Visions of Space (Paper Tiger, London: 1989) Ley, Willy, Rockets, Missiles and Space Travel (Viking Press, NY: 1957) McCall, Robert, The Art of Robert McCall (Bantam, NY: 1992) Miller, J., The X-Planes (Specialty Press, Marine on St. Croix, MN: 1983) Miller, Ron, The Dream Machines (Krieger, Malabar, FL: 1993) Ordway, Frederick I., and Randy Liebermann, Blueprint for Space (Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC: 1991) Ordway, Frederick I., Visions of Spaceflight (Four Walls Eight Windows, NY: 2001) Parkinson, B., and R.A. Smith, High Road to the Moon (BIS, London: 1979) Rynin, R.A., Interplanetary Communication (NASA, Washington, DC: 1971) Simpson, T., Pioneering the Space Frontier (Bantam, NY: 1986) Smith, R.A., The Exploration of the Moon (Harper, NY: 1954) US Government et al., The Hypersonic Revolution (Wright-Patterson AF Base, Dayton, OH: 1987) Winter, Frank, Prelude to the Space Age (Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC: 1983) MAGAZINES Air & Space/Smithsonian Journal of the British Interplanetary Society Aviation Week & Space Technology Quest ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author would like to express his thanks to those artists and authors without whose generosity this book would be much the poorer, with a special acknowledgment to Nick Stevens, who created numerous original illustrations for this book. Aldo Spadoni: www.ss3f.com/ambassadors/ spadoni.htm David A. Hardy: www.astroart.org/ Frank Henriquez Igor Bezyaev: http://spaceart1.ning.com/profile/ IgorBezyaev Jon Rogers: www.rogersrocketships.com Nick Stevens: www.starbase1.co.uk Pat Rawlings: www.patrawlings.com Pierre Mion: www.pierremion.com Piers Bizony: The Making of Stanley Kubrick's '2001: A Space Odyssey? Richard Bizley: http://www.bizleyart.com Rick Sternbach: www.ricksternbach.com Rob Godwin: www.cgpublishing.com Simon Atkinson: http://simonatkinsoncreativearts. webs.com Tom Miller: http://atomicart.com Karlheinz Rohrwild: www.oberth-museum.org