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The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners: The Healing Power of Medicinal Plants

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Published by North Atlantic Books on 2012-03-14
Paperback: $27.95
FAMILY and RELATIONSHIPS, BODY, MIND and SPIRIT, RELIGION, HEALTH and FITNESS, SCIENCE


Traditional herbalists or wise women were not only good botanists or pharmacologists; they were also shamanic practitioners and keepers of occult knowledge about the powerful properties of plants. Traveling back to the healing arts of the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, The Herbal Lore of Wise Women  and Wortcunners takes readers deep into this world, through the leechcraft of heathen society and witches’ herb bundles to the cloister gardens of the Middle Ages. It also examines herbal medicine today in the traditional Chinese apothecary, the Indian ayurvedic system, homeopathy, and Native American medicine.
 
Balancing the mystical with the practical, author Wolf Storl explains how to become an herbalist, from collecting material to distilling and administering medicines. He includes authoritative advice on herb gardening, as well as a holistic inventory of plants used for purposes both benign and malign, from herbs for cooking, healing, beauty, and body care to psychedelic plants, witches’ salves for opening alternative realities, and poisonous herbs that can induce madness or cause death. Storl also describes traditional “women’s plants” and their uses: dyeing cloth, spinning and weaving, or whipping up love potions. The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners is written for professional and amateur herbalists as well as gardeners, urban homesteaders, and plantspeople interested in these rich ancient traditions.
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ISBN: 9781583943588
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THE Herbal Lore OF Wise Women AND W ortcunners

Also by WOLF D. STORL Culture and Horticulture: The Classic Guide to Biodynamic and Organic Gardening Healing Lyme Disease Naturally: History, Analysis, and Treatments

THE Herbal Lore OF Wise Women AND Wortcunners The Healing Power of Medicinal Plants Foreword by Rosemary Gladstar WOLF D. STORL North Atlantic Books Berkeley, California

Copyright ? 2012 by Wolf D. Storl. Foreword copyright ? 2012 by Rosemary Gladstar. All rights reserved. No portion of this book, except for brief review, may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means'electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise'without the written permission of the publisher. For information contact North Atlantic Books. Published by North Atlantic Books Cover art by Matthew Wood P.O. Box 12327 Cover and book design by Suzanne Albertson Berkeley, California 94712 Printed in the United States of America The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners: The Healing Power of Medicinal Plants is sponsored and published by the Society for the Study of Native Arts and Sciences (dba North Atlantic Books), an educational nonprofit based in Berkeley, California, that collaborates with partners to develop cross-cultural perspectives, nurture holistic views of art, science, the humanities, and healing, and seed personal and global transformation by publishing work on the relationship of body, spirit, and nature. North Atlantic Books? publications are available through most bookstores. For further information, visit our website at www.northatlanticbooks.com or call 800-733-3000. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Storl, Wolf-Dieter. The herbal lore of wise women and wortcunners : the healing power of medicinal plants / Wolf D. Storl. p. cm. Summary: 'This rich study of herbal lore opens up the unfamiliar world of herbal healers around the world, focusing on the tradition of northern European and Anglo-Saxon witches and wortcunners (knowers of healing plants)''Provided by publisher. Includes bibliographical references (p. ). ISBN 978-1-58394-358-8 1. Witchcraft. 2. Herbs'Therapeutic use'Miscellanea. I. Title. BF1572.P43S76 2011 615.3'21'dc23 2011028996 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SHERIDAN 19 18 17 16 15 Printed on recycled paper

Acknowledgments IT wish to thank Arthur Hermes from whom I learned so much about 'wortcunning? and also give special thanks to my late friend, Bill all Bull, who taught me another way to approach plants. Thanks to the plants themselves for sharing some of their secrets with me. And also thanks to Richard Grossinger for finding the book worth taking into his publishing program. Thanks also to Matthew Wood, who connected us to North Atlantic Books and who has allowed his art to grace the cover. And thanks to Rosemary Gladstar for taking the time to read the book and write the foreword. Special thanks to my old friend, Larry Berger, organic gardener, who has persistently asked for years when my books will be out in English. Finally, I wish to thank my wife, Christine, for all her work in support of this book. j

My spirit and the strength of my arms Embrace the doctor Who can name each plant And knows profoundly each root Which heals the sick and lends solace to the suffering.1 'Goethe, Faust, Part II

Contents Illustrations xiii Key to Planetary and Zodiacal Symbols xv Foreword by Rosemary Gladstar xvii Introduction xxi Preface to the New Edition xxv CHAPTER ONE ? The Story of Herb Lore 1 Wortcunning 3 The Roots of Herbalism 5 Holy Men from the East 9 Mesopotamia 11 The Egyptian Tradition 13 Greek and Roman Medicine 15 The Arabs 19 Monasteries of the Middle Ages 21 The Heathen Tradition 24 Some Modern Herbalists 28 Celtic Roots 31 The Renaissance 34 Post-Renaissance Period 41 Trouble with Modern Pharmaceuticals 46 The Hazard of Herbs 48 CHAPTER TWO ? Medical Models 51 Chinese Medicine 61 Indian Ayurveda 67 Buddhist Medicine 75

Primitive Medicine and Shamanism 76 The 'Third Eye? 80 American Indian Herbalism 84 African Medicine 92 Homeopathy 94 Reflexology 96 Marijuana Therapy 98 Conclusion 99 CHAPTER THREE ? Philosophy of Western Herbalism 101 Planets and Plants 117 Some Other Planetary Relations 120 The Elements in Relation to the Planets 121 Relation of the Planets to the Zodiac 123 Planetary Rules of Herbal Medicine 129 The Right Times to Gather and Prepare Herbs 130 CHAPTER FOUR ? The Nature of Plants and Plant Medicines 135 Human Illness and Corresponding Plants 140 Anthroposophic Medicine 145 CHAPTER FIVE ? How to Become an Herbalist 153 Collecting Skills 157 How to Administer Herbal Medicine 160 Alchemical Distillations 162 The Cure 166 CHAPTER SIX ? From Staples to Poisons 169 The 'Active Ingredients? 174 Glucosides 176 Ethereal Oils 179 Alkaloids 181 Tannins 183 x ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners

Bitters 184 Mucilaginous Substances 185 CHAPTER SEVEN ? Vegetables as Medicines and Wild Foods 187 Spinach 189 Garlic 190 Onion 191 Cabbage 191 Carrot 193 Lettuce 194 Cucumber 195 Artichoke and Cardoon 195 Asparagus 195 Green Beans 196 Picking the Right Food the Right Way 196 Planetary Cooking 199 Wild Foods 201 CHAPTER EIGHT ? Herbs in Cooking and Beauty Care 203 Spices 207 Herbal Baths 211 Culinary Herbs 213 Herbs for Vinegars, Butters, and Salts 216 CHAPTER NINE ? Raising Herbs in the Garden 217 Soil and Fertilizer 220 Companion Herbs 221 Herb Propagation 223 CHAPTER TEN ? The Garden of Hecate 227 Shiva 231 The Concept of Poisonous Plants 235 What to Do When Poisoned 236 Contents ? xi

xii ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners Understanding Poisonous Plants 238 The Most Common Poisonous Plants 243 CHAPTER ELEVEN ? Women's Culture and Witches? Craft 249 Sex Magic 253 Women's Lore and Life-Crisis Situations 257 Herbal Dyes 261 The Darker Side 264 CHAPTER TWELVE ? Consciousness, Society, and Drugs 267 Cultural History of Drugs 273 CHAPTER THIRTEEN ? The Third Eye and Magic Flight 277 Witches? Salves 281 The Nightshades 284 Fly Agaric 288 Hemp 290 Ololiuqui 293 CHAPTER FOURTEEN ? Talking to the Plants 295 CHAPTER FIFTEEN ? Family Portraits 305 Spurge Family (Euphorbiaceae) 307 Poppy Family (Papaveraceae) 308 The Pulses, or Pea Family (Papilionaceae or Leguminosae) 309 Nettle Family (Urticaceae) 312 Madder Family (Rubiaceae) 313 Crowfoot or Buttercup Family (Ranunculaceae) 314 Appendix 317 Notes 325 Bibliography 339 Index 345 About the Author 363

xiii Illustrations 1. Correspondence of body parts and zodiac signs, 12 Strasburg 1484 2. Caduceus and dollar sign 16 3. The Eye of Horus 18 4. Monastery of Saint Gall, Switzerland (AD 830) 22 5. Lady's mantle by Hans Weiditz (sixteenth century) 38 6. The yin/yang symbol 62 7. Biorhythm of organs time of treatment 65 8. Interrelationships of yin and yang organs and the five elements 65 9. Chakras 73 10. Foot reflexology 97 11. Unfolding of the kingdom of nature 104 12. Points of entry and organs of culmination of the 111 inferior planets 13. Points of entry and organs of culmination of the superior 114 planets 14. The planetary spheres of the Renaissance cosmology 117 15. Planetary influences on the individual plant 119 16. Planetary influences, calcium and silicon 120 17. The pairing of the planets 121 18. Planets and elements 122 19. Macroanthropos 123 20. Planetary houses 124 21. Cardinal points of the year 126 22. Trigons 127 23. Planetary hours (according to Arthur Hermes) 132 24. Rhythm of expansion and contraction 138 25. Plant, animal, and human in relation to the macrocosm 142

xiv ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners 26. The threefold human organism in relation to the plant 148 27. The athanor and the alembic 164 28. Sulfur, mercurius, and sal in the plant 165 29. Continuum from staples to poisons 172 30. Olfactory and visual centers of the brain 209 31. Folk classifications of taste 210 32. Relationship of herbs to the elements and planets 215 33. The god Shiva 232 34. Incarnation of astrality in poisonous plants 240 35. Lingam and yoni 255 36. Celtic festival cycle 281 37. Fly agaric 289 38. Legumes flower while in full vegetative growth 311

Key to Planetary and Zodiacal Symbols Aries R Taurus T Gemini Y Cancer U Leo I Virgo O Libra P Scorpio Sagittarius Capricorn Aquarius Pisces j Zodiac Signs Planets 5 Mercury 7 Mars 6 Venus 8 Jupiter j Neptune - Uranus \ Pluto xv

Foreword The rishis, the great seers at the dawn of time, saw not only the appearance of things (phenomena), but the essence of things, the hidden, divine qualities, as well.To them, plants were beings with which one could speak and converse in the inner recesses of the soul. Fanortcaptnvateah.eNdelonlLiereohheeHmeomLqgeeofndooecasiontrsiwandtdaehugn(releamninnugWirtwrsiI,WWhdpaanrarunoaieranlpuabtWrsreesfiainWhetfoTttdsinoyndeleapvbortIeotHndendTmsor'emienhutcdmorW is a 'wortcunner,' after all'), but the entire tome offers a deep excursion into the heart of herbalism not generally found in the run-of-the-mill 'this herb for that? kind of herbal. Not content with a mere description of endless herbs and their healing virtues, The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners invites us into the hearts and essences of the plants and encourages us to discover 'who? they are through the realm of our own senses. The author, as you will quickly discover, is brilliant'a cultural ecologist by profession and respected herbal elder. Wolf D. Storl's experiences span decades of studying with forest gnomes, medicine shamans, and herbal gurus around the globe and obvious from his writings, he has also delved deeply into the works and writings of the old masters. I'm one who loves history and historic content, and this book is rich with verse from the oldest herb manuscripts, rare books, early writings, and obscure documents, all well annotated to boot. We travel back in time and learn of the great herbal masters. Though several of these wise herbalists? and healers? stories are somewhat known, especially those of Galen, Paracelsus, and Dioscorides, Storl uncovers stories and teachings not often heard and masterfully weaves them into the context of modern-day herbalism. Marvelous! xvii j

Not so far back in time and thus perhaps even more important are the teachings shared of the likes of Rudolf Steiner, the founder of biodynamic agriculture and anthroposophic medicine the famous French country herbalist Maurice Mess'gu? and Arthur Hermes, Storl's friend and teacher, who lived on a 'knoll overgrown with ivy, holly, oak, ash, and elderberry.' But Storl knows that often 'the greatest wortcunners ? are not the famous ones ? but the quiet, wise country women, the grandmothers and the great-grandmothers, whose lifelong experience taught them the right herb for any ill and the places where these plants grow,' and he devotes a great deal of his herb book espousing the rich tradition and teachings of these wise women. Marvelous again! Equally interesting and important are Storl's own stories. As a young boy, he was of that special clan of children who knew early that they are chosen by the plants. His stories of his early childhood growing up in the postwar years of World War II in a small town in Saxony, where he first encountered the healing properties and nourishing medicine of the plants, are what first invite you into this magical realm. For example, as a child of nine he was able to 'disappear? a nasty boil by rubbing a green apple over it. Nonbelievers may wonder at these stories, but anyone who has ever worked with plants deeply knows of this intrinsic connection that humans have with plants if we but open our eyes and hearts to see. Some children, however, just know. Much as Paracelsus in his Herbarius, one of the world's earliest herbals, criticizes the false or incorrect teachings found in the artful and beautifully bound 'new? herbals of his day, so Storl laments the misinformation and lack of depth presented in some of today's mass-produced and quickly written herbals information repeated often enough until it seems to be the truth is not always truth. Throughout The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners we are taught the hows and whys of being an herbalist, and how to expand our deepest connections with these incredible plants. There are instructions on how to garden and how to make medicine, advice and warnings about toxicity and poisons, and some of the usual information one might expect to find in an herb book. But rather than being 'just a xviii ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners

botanist or knower of herbs? on a surface level only, in this book we are invited to see beyond the surface, to enter into the realm of and know deeply the essence of plants. Storl lauds the herbal renaissance, but he likens it to putting 'new wine into old skins.' This is not the approach here. Instead we are asked to consider what herbs really are, what our relationship to plants is all about, and why plants heal. We are introduced to astrology, alchemy, and the doctrine of signatures in reference to our relation with plants. It's a full feast, one that I'm so thankful to have been able to sit down and devour. I am filled. And though an herbalist myself for what seems all of my long life, I am humbled by how much I learned reading the wisdom of The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners. Rosemary Gladstar, herbalist and author, from her home in Sage Mountain, Vermont Foreword ? xix

Index 345 A Absinthe, 184 Acer. See Maple Achillea vulgaris. See Yarrow Aconite, 181 Aconitum. See Monkshood Actaea. See Baneberry 'Active ingredients,' 45, 55, 57, 174'75 Acupuncture, 61'62, 66 Addiction, 181 Adonis rose (Adonis vernalis), 56, 254 Aesculapius. See Askl'pios Aethusa cynapium. See Fool's parsley Aframomum melegueta. See Grains of paradise African medicine, 92'94 Ageratum conyzoides. See Liver balm Agrimony, 213 Agrippa von Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius, 35, 103 Ahura Mazda, 3 Air signs, 127 Ajuga reptans. See Bugle, common Akhmahor, 96 Alchemilla vulgaris. See Lady's mantle Alchemy, 17, 162'66 Alder, black (Alnus glutinosa), 259 Alder buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula), 177, 178 Alexander the Great, 7 Alexandria, Egypt, 10 Alkaloids, 45, 46, 181'82, 242'43, 284 Allium cepa. See Onion A. sativum. See Garlic Alnus glutinosa. See Alder, black Aloe vera, 185 Amanita muscaria. See Fly agaric A. phalloides. See Death angel Amaranthus. See Pigweed American Medical Association (AMA), 45, 49'50 Amoracia rusticana. See Horseradish Anacardiaceae, 246 Angelica (Angelica archangelica), 184, 230 Anthriscus cerefolium. See Chervil Anthroposophic medicine, 29'30, 95'96, 145'50 Aphrodisiacs, 234, 255'57 Aphrodite, 230, 254 Apiaceae, 243'44 Apium graveolens. See Celery Apocynaceae, 181 Apollo, 231 Arctium lappa. See Burdock Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. See Bearberry Aristolochia serpentaria. See Virginia snakeroot Aristotle, 17, 19, 105, 238

Armelagos, George, 256 Arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia), 201 Artemis, 230 Artemisia abrotanum. See Southernwood A. absinthium. See Wormwood A. argyi. See Mugwort A. verlotiorum. See Mugwort A. vulgaris. See Mugwort Artichoke (Cynara scolymus), 195 Asclepias tuberosa. See Butterfly weed Ashoka, 9, 75 Askl'pios (Aesculapius), 15'16 Asparagus, 195'96 Aspasia of Milet, 7 Astrality, 140'41, 239'41, 311'12 Astrology, 12'13, 40'41, 123'28, 131? 33. See also Planets Atharva Veda, 9, 298, 317'20 Atriplex hortensis. See Orach Atropa belladonna. See Deadly nightshade A. mandragora. See Mandrake Atropine, 181, 283, 284 Attis, 254 Autonomic nervous system, 81'83 Avicenna, 35 Ayurveda, 8'9, 67'75 Aztecs, 293 B Babylonia, ancient, 11, 123, 130 Bacchus, 270 Bach, Edward, 96, 161 Bacon, Roger, 35 Baldur, 25 Bane, definition of, 234 Baneberry (Actaea), 245'46 Barberry (Berberis vulgaris), 260 Baths, herbal, 211'13 Bean, green (Phaseous vulgaris), 196 Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), 158, 177 Bedstraw, yellow (Galium verum), 314 Benedict, Saint, 22 Berberis vulgaris. See Barberry Bergson, Henry, 272 Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo, 4 Beverly, Robert, 244 Bhagavad Gita, 71 Bhikkus, 9, 10 Bindweed, 220 Bistort (Polygonum bistorta), 259 Bitter apple or bitter cucumber (Citrullus colocynthis), 14, 264 Bitter lettuce (Lactuca virosa), 282, 283 Bitter rue, 230 Bitters, 184 Blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus), 184 Blond psyllium, 185 Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), 85, 308'9 Bluebell (Campanula rapunculus), 174, 201 Bock, Hieronymus, 39, 191 Bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliate), 260 Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum), 85 Bonewell, 219 Borgia, Lucrezia, 264 Botanic-Eclectics, 44'45, 86 Brigid, 281 Broom, 310 346 ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners

Brunfels, Otto, 39 Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), 178 Buddha, 10, 141 Buddhism, 9, 10, 75, 269 Buffers, 175 Bugle, common (Ajuga reptans), 259 Burbank, Luther, 301'2 Burdock (Arctium lappa), 201, 202 Buttercup family, 314'15 Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa), 85 Butternut tree (Juglens cinera), 85 Butters, 216 C Cabbage, 191'92 Caduceus, 16 Caesar, Julius, 262 Caffeine, 181 Calamus, 90, 184, 219 Calendula, 260 California pitcher plant (Darlingtonia), 241 Calle, Alphonso E., 98 Campanula rapunculus. See Bluebell Canadian fleabane (Erigeron canadensis), 85 Cannabinaceae, 313 Cannabis sativa. See Hemp Canning, 197 Capsella bursa-pastoris. See Shepherd's purse Caraka, 67'68 Caraway, 221, 260 Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), 14 Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus), 195 Carnac Stones, 24 Carrot (Daucus carota), 193 Cashew family, 246 Cassava root (Manihot utilissima), 308 Cassia angustifolia. See Senna C. marilandica. See Senna, wild Castor bean (Ricinus communis), 14, 236, 308 Cayce, Edgar, 8 Celandine, greater (Chelidonium majus), 30, 181, 209, 308 Celery (Apium graveolens), 193'94, 260 Celtic festival cycle, 281 Celts, 31'34, 262, 279 Centaury, common, 184 Chaerophyllum bulbosum. See Chervil root Chakras, 73, 74 Chamomile German (Matricaria chamomilla), 49, 212, 219, 259, 260 Roman, 260 Chandler, Richie, 56 Chang Chung Ching, 67 Chanting, 298'300 Charlemagne, 22 Chartreuse, 165'66 Chelidonine, 181 Chelidonium majus. See Celandine, greater Chelone glabra. See Turtle head, white Chenopodium vulvaria. See Stinking goosefoot Cherokee, 84, 86'87 Index ? 347

Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), 178 Chervil root (Chaerophyllum bulbosum), 202 Chi, 62 Chiang Kai-shek, 61 Childbirth, 257'59 Children, intuition of, 6'7 China bark (Cinchona officinalis), 314 Chinese artichoke. See Root betony Chinese medicine, 8, 61'67 Chippewa, 88'90 Chiron, 16 Chlorophyll, 189 Christmas rose (Helleborus niger), 17, 131, 239, 283'84, 314 Chrysanthemum, 201 Ciba Corporation, 55 Cicero, 7 Cicuta maculata. See Water hemlock Cinchona officinalis. See China bark Circe, 229 Citrullus colocynthis. See Bitter apple or bitter cucumber Claviceps purpurea. See Rye smut Cleavers (Galium aparine), 179, 313? 14 Clover red (Trifolium), 310 sweet (Melilotus officinalis), 179, 310 Club des Hashischins, 292 Clusius, Carolus, 287 Cnicus benedictus. See Blessed thistle Cobra lily. See California pitcher plant Cocaine, 181 Codeine, 181 Coffee (Coffea arabica), 181, 271, 314 Coffin, Albert Isaiah, 84 Coffinism, 84 Colocynth, 11 Colors, significance of, 261'62 Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara), 7, 185 Columbus, Christopher, 34, 58, 207, 287 Comfrey, 185, 213 Commophora myrrha. See Myrrh Companion herbs, 221'23 Compositae, 206, 214, 215 Concoctions, 161 Conium maculatam. See Poison hemlock Consciousness, 146, 272'73, 275 Contraction and expansion, rhythm of, 138 Convallaria majalis. See Lily of the valley Conway, David, 33'34 Cook, James, 42, 192 Cooking anthroposophic, 213 herbs for, 205'6, 213'16 macrobiotic, 173, 213 planetary, 199'200, 205 spices for, 205, 207'11 Cooper, J. F., 90 Corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas), 309 Cornus amomum. See Willow, red C. florida. See Dogwood C. stolonifera. See Osier dogwood Coumarin glucosides, 178'79 Cow parsley (Heracleum sphondylium), 178 348 ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners

Crabgrass, 220 Crocus sativus. See Saffron Crowfoot family, 181, 245, 314'15 Cruciferae, 179, 192'93, 206, 214, 215 Crystal patterns, 144'45 Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), 195 Culpeper, Nicholas, 13, 38, 86, 190, 257 Culture role of, 269'73 women's, 252'61 Culver's root (Leptandra virginica), 84'85 Cumin (Cuminum cyminum), 11, 14 Curare, 182 Cyanide, 176 Cyanogenetic glucosides, 176 Cynara cardunculus. See Cardoon C. scolymus. See Artichoke Cypress spurge (Euphorbia cyparissias), 307 D Dandelion, 184 Daphne mezereum. See Merzeron Darlingtonia. See California pitcher plant Darnel grass (Lolium temulentum), 282, 283 Darwin, Charles, 310 Date, 11 Datura stamonium. See Jimson weed Daucus carota. See Carrot Daylily (Hemerocallis), 201 Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), 11, 181, 282, 283, 285 Dead-nettle, 221, 260 white (Lamium album), 178 Death, Door of, 115'16 Death angel (Amanita phalloides), 243 Decoctions, 161 Della Porta, Giambattista, 39'40, 282 Demeter, 229, 231, 254, 303 Densmore, Francis, 88 Descartes, Ren', 54 Devil's dung (Ferula asafoetida), 11 Devil's weed. See Jimson weed Dhanvantari, 16 Dharma, 68 Digitalis purpurea. See Foxglove Dionysus, 231, 254, 303 Dioscorea. See Mexican yam Dioscorides, 17, 19, 35, 98, 290 Distillations, alchemical, 162'66 Dogbane family, 181 Dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis), 307'8 Dogwood (Cornus florida), 84 Donar, 200 Door of Death, 115'16 Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 171 Dreams, 7'8, 156 Drosera rotundifolia. See Sundew Drugs. See also individual drugs adverse reactions to, 175 consciousness and, 272'73 cultural history of, 273'76 development of, 45'46 etymology of, 234 hallucinogenic, 234, 274'75 herbal origins of, 55'57, 175 problems with, 46'48 Index ? 349

speed of, 166'67 Druids, 31'33, 281'84, 299 D'rer, Albrecht, 39 Dyer's broom (Genista tinctora), 178, 263 Dyes, herbal, 261'63 E Earth signs, 127 Edfu, 14 Egypt, ancient, 13'15, 19'20 Elderberry (Sambucus nigra), 178 Elemental beings, 122, 303'4 Elements, 61, 62, 63, 65, 72, 73, 121'22 Elettaria cardamomum. See Cardamom El Faiyum, 20 Eliade, Mircea, 6, 290 Eli Lilly Company, 55 Emoto, Masaru, 144 Engels, Friedrich, 91 Entheogen, 234 Ephedra sinica. See Ma huang Ephedrine, 55, 182 Equisetum arvense. See Horsetail Eranthus hiemalis. See Winter aconite Erasmus, 37 Erigeron canadensis. See Canadian fleabane ESP (extrasensory perception), 83 Essenes, 10 Essential oils, 179'80 Ethereal oils, 179'80 Eupatorium perfoliatum. See Boneset E. purpureum. See Joe Pye weed Euphorbiaceae, 307'8 Euphorbia cyparissias. See Cypress spurge E. helioscopia. See Sun spurge E. lathyrus. See Gopher plant Euphrasia officinalis. See Eyebright Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis), 202 Expansion and contraction, rhythm of, 138 Eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis), 8, 222 Eye of Horus, 18, 150 F Fagopyrum esculentum. See Buckwheat Farb, Peter, 256 Faria, Abb', 76 February Daphne, 26 Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), 14, 194, 221 Fenugreek (Trigonella), 310 Fertility rites, 254 Ferula asafoetida. See Devil's dung Fiacre, Saint, 34 Ficino, 35, 103 Figwort (Ranunculus ficaria), 314 Fir, 11, 212 Fire signs, 127 Fitzgerald, William H., 97 Flavone glucosides, 177'78 Flax (Linum usitatissimum), 14 Fleming, Alexander, 56 Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), 288'89 Foeniculum vulgare. See Fennel Food cooking, 199'200 350 ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners

as medicine, 189, 196'98 organs and, 146'47 sattvic, rajasic, and tamasic, 71 wild, 201'2 Fool's parsley (Aethusa cynapium), 244 Foot reflexology, 96'97 Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), 56, 221 Freya, 25, 26, 230, 254, 265 Freyr, 265 Frigg, 265 Frobenius, 37 Fugger family, 35, 37, 38 G Galega officinalis. See Goat's rue Galen, 14, 17'19, 35, 37 Galium aparine. See Cleavers G. odoratum. See Woodruff, sweet G. verum. See Bedstraw, yellow Gama, Vasco da, 34, 207 Gandhi, Mahatma, 55, 162, 167, 168 Garlic (Allium sativum), 14, 190'91, 222, 230 Garuda, 16 Genista tinctora. See Dyer's broom Gentiana villosa. See Sampson snakeroot Gentian root, 184 Geranium robertianum. See Herb Robert Gibbons, Euell, 202 Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), 178 Ginseng (Panax ginseng), 66'67 Glucosides (glycosides), 46, 176'79 Glycyrrhiza glabra. See Licorice Goat's rue (Galega officinalis), 259 God(s). See also individual gods imagery of, 303 light-dark continuum of, 233 private, 265 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 45, 115, 137, 139 Golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis), 315 Goosegrass. See Cleavers Gopher plant (Euphorbia lathyrus), 307 Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta), 93 Graves, Robert, 32 Greece, ancient, 10, 15'17 Greens, 196'97, 198 Green snake vine (Rivea corymbosa), 293 Grindelia squarrosa. See Gumweed Grossinger, Richard, 316 Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris), 219, 259, 260 Gullahs, 94 Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa), 246 H Hahnemann, Samuel, 44, 94'96, 144 Hall, Manly P., 301 Halloween, 279 Hallucinogens, 234, 274'75 Hamamelis virginiana. See Witch hazel Hamburg parsley root (Petroselinum crispum var. tuberosum), 202 Hasan-ibn-al-Sabbah, 291 Hashish, 291, 292 Hauschka, Rudolf, 242'43 Index ? 351

Hawthorn (Crataegus), 178 Hay flowers, 212 Heal-all, 213 Health, maintaining, 167'68 Heather (Calluna), 177, 178 Hecate, 229'31, 245, 264 Helianthus tuberosus. See Sunchoke Hellebore black (Helleborus niger), 17, 131, 239, 283'84, 314 white (Veratrum album), 11, 17 Hemerocallis. See Daylily Hemlock poison (Conium maculatam), 171, 243, 282, 283 water (Cicuta maculata), 243'44 Hemp (Cannabis sativa), 11, 98, 221, 290'92, 313 Hemp family, 313 Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), 282, 283 Henry, Patrick, 288 Hepatica nobilis. See Liverwort Heracleum sphondylium. See Cow parsley Herbalism. See also Medicine in Africa, 92'94 alchemy and, 162'66 in ancient Egypt, 13'15, 19'20 in ancient Greece, 10, 15'17 in ancient Rome, 17'19 Arabic influence on, 19'20 Celtic influence on, 31'34, 299 children and, 6'7 in China, 8, 66'67 four kingdoms of Nature and, 103'6 in India, 8'9, 67'68, 75 in Mesopotamia, 11'13 in the Middle Ages, 21'28 Native American, 84'92, 299 pagan tradition of, 24'28 in the post-Renaissance period, 41'46 in the Renaissance, 19, 34'41 roots of, 5'9 shamanistic, 298 Western medicine and, 50, 54'60 Herbalists. See also individual herbalists in the astral world, 303'4 collecting skills for, 157'60 modern, 28'31, 60 steps to becoming, 155'57 women as, 24, 26'28, 31, 43'44, 251'53 Herb gardening companion planting, 221'23 fertilizing, 220'21 in monasteries, 21'24 propagating, 223'25 soil, 219, 220 Herb Robert (Geranium robertianum), 260 Herbs. See also Herbalism Herb gardening individual herbs administering, 160'62 as aphrodisiacs, 255'57 for baths, 211'13 collecting, 130'33, 157'60, 299 companion, 221'23 for cooking, 205'6, 213'16 drying, 160 352 ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners

as dyes, 261'63 identifying, 158 safety and, 48'50, 175 talking to, 6, 297'304 for women, 258'60 Hermes, 16, 17, 129, 132, 150 Hermes, Arthur, 28'29, 80, 131, 149, 158, 197, 199'200, 201, 205, 297 Herodotus, 20, 290 Heroin, 309 Hevea brasiliensis. See Rubber tree Hildegard von Bingen, 19, 21, 301 Hinduism, 5, 9, 68, 75, 107, 108, 211 Hippocrates, 16'17, 189, 194 Hippophae rhamnoides. See Sea-buckthorn Hofmann, Albert, 304 Holda, Mother, 230, 254 Holle, 25 Hollyhock, 185 Holy basil (Ocimum tenuifolium), 303 Homeopathy, 44'45, 94'96 Hops, 184 Hop vine (Humulus lupulus), 313 Horehound (Marrubium vulgare), 260 Horseradish (Amoracia rusticana), 192 Horsetail (Equisetum arvense), 178, 212, 223 Horus, 18 Houseleek (Sempervivum tectorum), 33 Houses, planetary, 124'26 Human beings four kingdoms of Nature and, 105'6 relationship of plant archetype to, 139'42, 148, 149 Humors, 14, 17'18, 72'73, 122 Humulus lupulus. See Hop vine Huxley, Aldous, 272 Hydrastis canadensis. See Golden seal Hygeia, 16 Hypericum perforatum. See SaintJohn's-wort Hypothalamus, 83 I Illnesses cause of, 167 corresponding plants and, 143'44 traditional healing for, 168 Imagination, plane of, 114'15 Impatiens capensis. See Jewelweed I. pallida. See Jewelweed Incas, 287 Indian medicine, 8'9, 14, 67'75 Infusions, 160'61 Inspiration, plane of, 115 Intuition, 6'7, 236, 264 Inulin, 174 Iroquois, 79, 90'92, 252 Ishtar, 254 Isis, 18 Isphaghula, 185 J Jason, 229 Jefferson, Thomas, 288 Jesuit tea. See China bark Jesus, 116, 141, 179, 231, 303 Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis, I. pallida), 246 Jimson weed (Datura stamonium), 244'45, 284 Index ? 353

Joe Pye weed (Eupatorium purpureum), 84 John the Baptist, 310 Jonas, Eugen, 13 Jones, Jim, 176 Jones, Margaret, 43 Juglens cinera. See Butternut tree Juniper (Juniperus communis), 15, 230 Jupiter plants and, 118 sphere of, 112'13 zodiac and, 125 K Kali, 80, 233, 264 Karma, 68 Kinnikinnick, 158 Kneipp, Sebastian, 211 Knotweed (Polygonum), 178 Koch, Robert, 167 Koguzki, Felix, 30 Kolisko, Lilly, 145 Kuenzle, Reverend, 212 Kundalini, 74 L Labiatae, 206, 214, 215 Lacnunga, 298 Lactation, 259, 261 Lactuca sativa. See Lettuce L. virosa. See Bitter lettuce Lady's mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris), 38, 259, 260 Lakshmi, 96, 232 Lamium album. See Dead-nettle, white Lapps, 262 Lapsana communis. See Nipplewort Larkspur, 245 Lavender, 219 Leary, Timothy, 292 Leechdom, 234 Leguminosae, 309'12 Lemon balm, 212 Leonuris cardiaca. See Motherwort Leptandra virginica. See Culver's root Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), 194'95 Lewis, Walter H., 48'49 Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), 55, 310 Liliaceae, 181, 206 Lilith, 264 Lilium candidum. See Madonna lily Lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), 56 Linaria vulgaris. See Toadflax, common Lingam and yoni, 254'55 Linnaeus, 42 Linum usitatissimum. See Flax Lippert, Franz, 222 Liver balm (Ageratum conyzoides), 93 Liverwort (Hepatica nobilis), 314, 315 Lobelia (Lobelia inflata), 44, 55 Locuste, 264 Lolium temulentum. See Darnel grass Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 88 Loosestrife, yellow (Lysimachia vulgaris), 259 Lovage, 219, 260 Love-in-a-mist (Nigrella sativa), 315 Lucifer, 231 Lysimachia vulgaris. See Loosestrife, yellow 354 ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners

Macerations, 161 Macrobiotic diet, 173, 213 Madder (Rubia tinctorum), 263, 313 Madder family, 181, 313'14 Madonna lily (Lilium candidum), 15 Ma huang (Ephedra sinica), 55, 182 Mallow, 185, 212 Mandrake (Mandragora officinarum or Atropa mandragora), 15, 254, 285'86 Manihot utilissima. See Cassava root Mao Tse-tung, 61, 67, 162 Maple (Acer), 15 Marijuana, 98, 272, 291'92 Marjoram, wild (Origanum vulgare), 260 Marrubium vulgare. See Horehound Mars plants and, 118 sphere of, 112 zodiac and, 125 Mary, Virgin, 254 Matricaria chamomilla. See Chamomile Mattioli, Pietro Andrea, 35, 103 Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), 94, 235, 285 Mead, Margaret, 253 Meadow rue, yellow (Thalictrum flavum), 255 Meddygion Myddfai, 33'34 Medea, 229'30 Medicine African, 92'94 anthroposophic, 29'30, 95'96, 145'50 Ayurveda, 8'9, 67'75 Buddhist, 75 Chinese, 8, 61'67 in the 18th and 19th centuries, 42'46 homeopathy, 94'96 marijuana therapy, 98 Native American, 84'92 primitive, 48, 76'80 reflexology, 96'97 Unani, 75 Western, 46'48, 53'60, 150'51 Melanchthon, Philip, 8 Melilotus officinalis. See Clover, sweet Menstruation, 260, 261 Menyanthes trifoliate. See Bogbean Mercurius, 164, 165 Mercury (herb) annual (Mercurialis annua), 307'8 dog's (M. perennis), 307'8 Mercury (planet) plants and, 118 sphere of, 110 zodiac and, 125 Merzeron (Daphne mezereum), 26 Mesopotamia, 11'13 Mess'gu', Maurice, 28, 30'31, 32, 130, 191, 194, 195 Mexican yam (Dioscorea), 56 Middle Ages, herbalism in, 21'28 Midwives, 257'59 Milk vetch (Astragalus), 310 Mistletoe, 55'56, 230 Mithra, 303 Mithridate, 237 Mithridates VI, 237 Index ? 355

Monasteries, 21'24 Monkshood (Aconitum), 26, 181, 245, 283 Monte Cassino, 22 Moon Gateway of, 114'15 phases of, 13, 40, 93, 130'31 plants and, 117 sphere of, 109'10 zodiac and, 125 Morgan, H. L., 91 Mormon tea, 55, 182 Morning glory seeds, 293 Morpheus, 309 Morphine, 45, 182, 309 Motherwort (Leonuris cardiaca), 260 Mucilaginous substances, 185 Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, A. verlotiorum, A. argyi), 67, 221, 258, 260, 298'99 Mummification, 20 Mushrooms appearance of, 239'40 poisonous, 236'37, 243 sacred, 275, 288'89 Mustard family, 179, 192'93 Myrrh (Commophora myrrha), 11 Myrtle (Myrthus communis), 11 N Nasturtium officinalis. See Watercress Native Americans, 79, 299 Nature, four kingdoms of, 103'6 Navelwort (Umbilicus rupestris), 255 Neanderthals, 76 Neoplatonists, 35 Nerum oleander. See Oleander Nettle family, 312'13 Neuss, Wolfgang, 292 Nicotine, 182, 288 Nightshade bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara), 259, 286 black (Solanum nigrum), 286 deadly (Atropa belladonna), 11, 181, 282, 283, 285 Nightshade family, 181, 244, 256, 284? 88 Nigrella sativa. See Love-in-a-mist Nipplewort (Lapsana communis), 259 Nympheae, 201 O Oak (Quercus robor), 212, 259 Ocimum tenuifolium. See Holy basil Odin, 25, 80, 231 Odysseus, 229 Oenothera biennis. See Evening primrose Old-man's beard, 315 Oleander (Nerum oleander), 56 Ololiuqui, 293 Onion (Allium cepa), 191 Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), 15, 309 Orach (Atriplex hortensis), 202 Orchid, 256'57 Origanum vulgare. See Marjoram, wild Ormazd, 3 Orphists, 10 Oshawa, George, 173 Osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), 158 356 ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners

Osiris, 18 Oxalic acid, 189'90 P Panacea, 16, 254 Panax ginseng. See Ginseng Papaveraceae, 181, 308'9 Papaver somniferum. See Opium poppy Papilionaceae, 309'12 Paracelsus, 13, 19, 35'38, 40, 57, 72, 78, 95, 103, 107, 131, 144, 162, 171, 205, 301 Parmentier, Antoine August, 287 Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), 202 Parvati, 254 Pasteur, Louis, 167 Pastinaca sativa. See Parsnip Pea family, 309'12 Penicillin, 56 Pen Ts'ao, 8 Peppermint, 219 Periwinkle (Vinca rosea), 57 Persephone, 139, 229 Petroselinum crispum var. tuberosum. See Hamburg parsley root Pfeiffer, Ehrenfried, 145 Pharmaceutical, etymology of, 234 Phaseous vulgaris. See Bean, green Phenol glucosides, 176'77 Philter/philtre, 234 Phytolacca americana. See Pokeweed Pigweed (Amaranthus), 201 Pimpernel, 8 Placebo effect, 57, 95 Planets elements of, 121'22 herbal medicine and, 129'30 pairing of, 121 plants and, 117'20 spheres of, 109'13, 117 zodiac and, 123'29 Plantain (Plantago ovata), 185 Plants. See also Herbs Poisonous plants individual plants 'active ingredients? of, 174'75 development of, 238'39 as divine beings, 297, 300'301, 303'4 friendships with, 302 illnesses and, 143'44 intuition and, 6'7, 236 nature of, 106, 137'40 personalities of, 302'3 planets and, 117'20 relationship of humans to archetype of, 139'42, 148, 149 similarities within families of, 307 talking to, 6, 297'304 telepathy and, 301'2 Plasters, 162 Plato, 10, 141, 297 Pliny, 17, 32, 55, 299 Podophyllum peltatum. See Mayapple Poison. See also Poisonous plants definition of, 235 women and, 264 Poison hemlock (Conium maculatam), 171, 243, 282, 283 Poison ivy, 246 Poison oak, 246 Index ? 357

Poisonous plants common, 243'47 concept of, 235'36 continuum of staples to, 171'74 fear of, 236'37 precautions for, 236 steps to take after consumption of, 237 understanding, 238'43 Poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix), 246 Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana), 85, 235'36, 246'47 Polygonum bistorta. See Bistort Pomegranate (Punica granatum), 15 Poppy opium (Papaver somniferum), 15, 309 red (P. rhoeas), 309 Poppy family (Papaveraceae), 181, 308'9 Portulaca oleraceae. See Purslane Potato (Solanum tuberosum), 202, 235, 286'87 Potentilla anserine. See Silverweed Poultices, 162 Prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum), 84 Ptolemy, 7 Puccoon root, red. See Bloodroot Pulses, 309'12 Punica granatum. See Pomegranate Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae), 201, 282, 283 Pye, Joe, 84 Pythagoras, 10 Q Queen Anne's lace, 87, 259, 260 Quercus robor. See Oak Quinine, 45, 76, 94, 182, 314 R Radish, black (Raphanus nigra), 192 Raleigh, Sir Walter, 287, 288 Ranunculaceae, 181, 245, 314'15 Ranunculus ficaria. See Figwort Raphanus nigra. See Radish, black Rauwolfia serpentina. See Snakeroot Reflexology, 96'97 Renaissance, 34'41 Reseda luteola. See Weld Reston, James, 61'62 Rhamnus frangula. See Alder buckthorn Rhazes, 36, 189 Ricinus communis. See Castor bean Rig Veda, 288, 298, 321'23 Rivea corymbosa. See Green snake vine Rock, Joseph F., 56 Rolling Thunder, 158 Rome, ancient, 17'19, 207 Root betony (Stachys sieboldi), 201, 202, 260 Rosaceae, 206 Rosemary, 212, 230'31, 253'54 Roses, 222 Rosicrucians, 114, 115, 130, 133 Rtam, 3 Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), 308 Rubiaceae, 181, 313'14 Rubia tinctorum. See Madder Ruck, Carl, 234 358 ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners

Rudra, 25 Rue (Ruta graveolens), 178 Ruskin, John, 105 Ruta graveolens. See Rue Rye smut (Claviceps purpurea), 258 S Saffron (Crocus sativus), 263 Sagittaria sagittifolia. See Arrowhead Saint Gall, monastery of, 22'23 Saint-John's-wort (Hypericum perforatum), 50, 161 Sal, 164, 165 Salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius), 202 black (Scorzonera hispanica), 202 Salt excessive, 205 herb, 216 Salves definition of, 162 witches', 279'80, 282'84 Sambucus nigra. See Elderberry Sampson snakeroot (Gentiana villosa), 43 Sanguinaria canadensis. See Bloodroot Sanicula europa. See Wood sanicle Saponaria officinalis. See Soapwort Saponin glucosides, 177 Sassafras (Sassafras officinale), 84 Saturn plants and, 118 sphere of, 113 zodiac and, 125 Schultes, Richard Evans, 56'57 Scopolamine, 182, 256, 284 Scorzonera hispanica. See Salsify, black Scotch broom, 310 Sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), 178 Seet'rner, Friedrich W. A., 45, 309 Sempervivum tectorum. See Houseleek Senecio vulgaris. See Groundsel Senna (Cassia angustifolia), 11, 15, 49, 310 wild (C. marilandica), 94 Serpents, 15, 16 Seth, 18 Sex magic, 253'57 Shakers, 38, 44, 86 Shakespeare, William, 190 Shakti, 74 Shamanism, 48, 76'84, 280'81 Shennong, 8, 290 Shepherd's purse (Capsella bursapastoris), 178 Shiva, 16, 80, 83, 141, 231'33, 254, 303 Silverweed (Potentilla anserine), 178, 260 Skirret (Sium sisarum), 202 Skuld, 4 Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), 85, 185 Smell, sense of, 208'11 Snakeroot (Rauwolfia serpentina), 55 Snowball (Viburnum lantata), 260 Soapwort (Saponaria officinalis), 263 Solanaceae, 181, 206, 244 Solanines, 179 Solanum dulcamara. See Nightshade, bittersweet S. nigrum. See Nightshade, black Index ? 359

S. tuberosum. See Potato Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum), 221, 260 Spices, 205, 207'11 Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), 189'90 Spruce, 212 Spurge family, 307'8 Stachys sieboldi. See Root betony Staples to poisons, continuum of, 171? 74 Steiner, Rudolf, 29'30, 55, 96, 145'49, 164, 239, 242, 271 Stinging nettle, 221, 222 Stinking goosefoot (Chenopodium vulvaria), 255, 257 Stonehenge, 24 Storksbill, 260 Strabo, Walafried, 22'23 Strychnine, 182 Sulfur, 164, 165 Sumer, ancient, 11 Sun Gateway of, 115 plants and, 118 sphere of, 111'12 zodiac and, 125 Sunchoke (Helianthus tuberosus), 174 Sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), 158 Sun spurge (Euphorbia helioscopia), 307 Sushumna, 74 Susruta, 68 Swamp potato, 201 Swazi, 93 T Tamarind, 310 Tammuz, 254 Tannins, 183 Tarragon, 219 Tarweed. See Gumweed Taste, sense of, 208'11 Tea, 271 Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre, 143 Thalictrum flavum. See Meadow rue, yellow Thanatos, 309 THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), 292 Third eye, 80'84 Thomson, Sam, 44, 84 Thomsonians, 44'45, 84, 86 Thor, 25, 200 Thorn apple. See Jimson weed Thoth, 16, 17, 18 Thun, Maria, 13, 124 Thunar, 25 Thyme, 11, 212, 219, 222, 260 Tinctures, 161 Toadflax, common (Linaria vulgaris), 178 Tobacco, 89, 90, 91'92, 158, 182, 271, 287'88 Tomato, 235 Tonka bean (Dipteryx), 310 Touch-me-not. See Jewelweed Toxicodendron vernix. See Poison sumac Toxin, 235 Tragacanth (Astragalus), 310 Tragopogon porrifolius. See Salsify Trances, 265, 279'81 360 ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners

Tridoshas, 72'73 Trigons, 126, 127, 128 Tristan and Isolde, 194 Trithemius of Sponheim, 35, 166 Turner, William, 39 Turtle head, white (Chelone glabra), 84 Tussilago farfara. See Coltsfoot Tyr, 26 U Ulmus rubra. See Slippery elm U Maung Maung, 172 Umbelliferae, 206, 214, 215 Umbilicus rupestris. See Navelwort Unani medicine, 75 Uranus, 3 Urd, 4 Urticaceae, 312'13 Urtication, 313 Uyldert, Mellie, 129 V Valerian, 8, 26, 55, 212 Valium, 55 Vanir, 265 Varuna, 3 Vegetables. See also individual vegetables canning, 197 cooking, 199'200 as medicines, 189, 196'98 in monastery gardens, 24 staples vs., 172'74 in winter, 197'98 Venom, 235 Venus plants and, 118 sphere of, 110'11 zodiac and, 125 Veratrum album. See Hellebore, white Vervain, 32'33, 299 Viburnum lantata. See Snowball Vinca rosea. See Periwinkle Vincelli, Don Bernardo, 165 Vinegars, 216 Virginia snakeroot (Aristolochia serpentaria), 84 Vishnu, 96, 231, 233, 303 Von Pettenkofer, Max, 167 W Walnut, 212 Washington, George, 43, 291 Wasson, Gordon, 288 Watercress (Nasturtium officinalis), 192'93, 219 Water crystals, 144'45 Water hemlock (Cicuta maculata), 243'44 Water mint, 219 Water signs, 127 Wegmann, Ita, 96 Weiditz, Hans, 38, 39 Weld (Reseda luteola), 178, 262'63 Weleda Company, 96, 145'46 Wesley, John, 271 Wild foods, 201'2 Willow, red (Cornus amomum), 90 Willow pear, 11 Winter aconite (Eranthus hiemalis), 314 Index ? 361

Witches broomsticks of, 265, 279 as cause of illness, 91 days celebrated by, 281'82 familiars of, 280 persecution of, 27'28, 44 salves of, 279'80, 282'84 Witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), 85 Withering, William, 56 Woden, 25, 29, 80, 141, 298 W'hler, Wolfgang, 45 Women childbirth and, 257'59 clairvoyance of, 264'65 culture of, 252'61 division of labor and, 251'52 as herbalists, 24, 26'28, 31, 43'44, 251'53 herbs for, 258'60 intuition of, 264 as poisoners, 264 Woodruff, sweet (Galium odoratum), 314 Wood sanicle (Sanicula europa), 260 Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium), 184 Wortcunning concept of, 5 etymology of, 3'5 Wyrd, 4 X Xavier, Saint Francis, 76 Y Yarrow (Achillea vulgaris), 184, 212, 219, 221, 259, 260 Year, cardinal points of, 126 Yew (Taxus baccata), 6'7 Yggdrasil, 4 Yin and yang, 62'63, 65 Yoga, 71, 74, 83 Yogananda, Paramahansa, 301 Z Zanthoxylum americanum. See Prickly ash Zodiac, 12, 40, 123'2 362 ? The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners

About the Author Ainhllilnpspectis nt ro olog st Wolf D. Storl's area of research is shamanism and hea g in traditional societies with a focus on the role of plants a a of life, including sacred symbolism, magic, medicine, foods, and poisons. Born in Saxony, Germany, he was educated in the United States. He studied biodynamic farming in the 1970s and in 1974 he received his PhD at the University of Berne, Switzerland, as a Fulbright scholar. In the following years he taught anthropology at Rogue Community College in Oregon, conducted participant research on a traditional peasant farm in the Emmental region of Switzerland and among vignerons in Charente-Maritime, France, and taught cultural ecology at the University of Berne, Switzerland. In 1982, he spent a year as an official visiting scholar at the Benares Hindu University, Varanasi, India. After returning to the United States in 1984, he spent much time with traditional medicine persons of the Cheyenne and taught courses at Sheridan College, Wyoming. After another term in India and Nepal, he and his wife moved to Germany where he began to write books as a freelance writer and lecturer. Storl has traveled and conducted research in South Asia, India, Mexico, the Canary Islands, South Africa, and much of Europe, pursuing ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal interests. He has written some twenty-five books and many articles, mostly in German, which have been translated into various languages, such as English, Dutch, French, Italian, Portuguese, Polish, Japanese, Danish, Lithuanian, Latvian, and Czech. Storl is a frequent guest on German, Swiss, and Austrian television, and has appeared on BBC. 363 j

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