This new, sophisticated, comprehensive reference book will inspire and instruct painters on how to handle today’s acrylics in innovative and individualistic ways.
Acrylics have grown into the most adaptable art material for the modern age. Developments in the pigment industry have given acrylics a remarkably permanent, rich, and abundant palette, making it the favorite medium of many contemporary artists. As colors are being developed, their chemical components are also enhanced for better texture and handling.
Art-supplies vendors now offer acrylic mediums for thinning, thickening, glazing, molding, pouring, texturing, and dozens of other uses. Even experienced acrylic painters can be confused—even intimidated—by this staggering diversity of products. Painter and art materials expert Rhéni Tauchid simplifies this daunting subject, clearly explaining each type of medium and suggesting ways it can enhance your painting practice. Over twenty step-by-step demonstrations teach you how to apply mediums to create vibrant colors, sensuous surfaces, and striking visual effects. Hundreds of beautiful photos illustrate mediums’ almost limitless potential and show you how other artists—both abstract and realist—are employing mediums to push their art in new creative directions. The first book of its kind, this essential reference belongs on every acrylic painter’s shelf.
Includes the Work of Contemporary Masters:
Nick Bantock, Diane Black, Bruno Capolongo, Pauline Conley, Marc Courtemanche, Marie-Claude Delcourt, Claire Desjardins, Marion Fischer, Heather Haynes, Lorena Kloosterboer, Suzy Lamont, Marie Lannoo, Connie Morris, Barry Oretsky, Lori Richards, Hester Simpson, Ksenia Sizaya, Rhéni Tauchid, Alice Teichert, Beth ten Hove, Sharlena Wood, and Heather Midori Yamada.
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ACRYLIC PAINTING MEDIUMS & METHODS
ACRYLIC PAINTING MEDIUMS & METHODS 2
ACRYLIC PAINTING MEDIUMS & METHODS A Contemporary Guide to Materials, Techniques, and Applications RH'NI TAUCHID
Copyright ? 2018 Rh'ni Tauchid and The Monacelli Press Illustrations ? 2018 Rh'ni Tauchid unless otherwise noted Text copyright ? 2018 Rh'ni Tauchid Contributing artists: Nick Bantock, Diane Black, Bruno Capolongo, Pauline Conley, Marc Courtemanche, Marie-Claude Delcourt, Claire Desjardins, Marion Fischer, Heather Haynes, Lorena Kloosterboer, Suzy Lamont, Marie Lannoo, Connie Morris, Barry Oretsky, Lori Richards, Hester Simpson, Ksenia Sizaya, Alice Teichert, Beth ten Hove, Sharlena Wood, and Heather Midori Yamada Published in the United States by MONACELLI STUDIO, AN IMPRINT OF THE MONACELLI PRESS All rights reserved. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Tauchid, Rh'ni, author. Title: Acrylic painting mediums and methods : a contemporary guide to materials, techniques, and applications / by Rh'ni Tauchid. Description: First edition. | New York : Monacelli Studio, 2018. Identifiers: LCCN 2017036550 | ISBN 9781580934930 (hardback) Subjects: LCSH: Acrylic painting--Technique. | Paint materials. | BISAC: ART / Techniques / Acrylic Painting. | ART / Reference. | ART / Techniques / Color. Classification: LCC ND1535 .T38 2018 | DDC 751.4 2/6--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017036550 ISBN 978-1-58093-493-0 Printed in Singapore Design by Jennifer K. Beal Davis Cover design by Jennifer K. Beal Davis Cover illustrations by Rh'ni Tauchid 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 First Edition MONACELLI STUDIO THE MONACELLI PRESS 6 West 18th Street New York, New York 10011 www.monacellipress.com
This book is dedicated to my parents, Gisele and Mohamad Tauchid. Thank you for always saying 'yes,' for asking 'how can we help'? and for your uplifting and unrelenting support not just of this book but of every creative endeavor I've ever embarked upon. Your active, positive, selfless attitude continues to nourish me in every aspect of my life, and I am so grateful.
: T W O M E D I U M S , B Y A L I C E T E I C H E R T 10 I N T R O D U C T I O N 13 P A R T 1 MATERIALS 22 C H A P T E R 1 ACRYLIC MEDIUM BASICS 24 What Are All These Jars of Whitish Goo? 28 The Anatomy of Acrylic Paints and Mediums 31 Key Descriptive Terms 33 C H A P T E R 2 CATEGORIZING MEDIUMS 42 Water: The First Medium 44 Grounds 51 Liquid Mediums 58 Gel Mediums 69 Self-Leveling Gels and Pouring Mediums 74 Textured Gels 77 Mediums for Specific Uses 84 Preparing Custom Mediums 88 Additives 90 Finishing Mediums 93 C H A P T E R 3 UNDERSTANDING TOOLS AND THEIR EFFECTS 96 Brushes and Beyond 98 Choosing the Right Tools 103 Palettes 109 C H A P T E R 4 CHOOSING A SUPPORT 110 Types of Supports 112 Factors to Consider 113 P A R T 2 METHODS 118 C H A P T E R 5 INCORPORATING MEDIUMS INTO YOUR WORK 120 Subtlety and Boldness 124 Watching Paint Dry 125 Anticipating Change (Expect the Unexpected) 126 C H A P T E R 6 USING ACRYLIC GROUNDS 130 Gesso 136 Modeling Pastes 136 Dry Media Ground 138 C H A P T E R 7 CREATING SURFACE TEXTURES 142 Types of Texture 144 Impasto (Alla Prima Application) 145 Bas Relief 146 Granular Textures 150 C H A P T E R 8 LAYERING AND COMBINING MEDIUMS 152 Layering 154 Combining 159 C H A P T E R 9 GOING BEYOND THE BASICS 162 Pouring Mediums 164 Using Mediums as Resists 168 Extruding Mediums 170 CONTENTS
Incising the Acrylic Surface 173 Printing with Acrylic Mediums 175 Sculpting with Acrylics 176 Stenciling 186 Masking 189 Transferring Images 189 C H A P T E R 1 0 SPECIAL USES FOR MEDIUMS 196 Extending Color 198 Controlling Luster 199 Changing Viscosity 203 Changing Rheology 205 Creating Washes 206 Controlling Relative Coverage 206 Glazing 210 Creating Thick, Lustrous Layers 214 C H A P T E R 1 1 EXPLORING COLLAGE, DECOUPAGE, AND MIXED MEDIA 216 Collage 218 Decoupage 224 Mixed Media 225 C H A P T E R 1 2 AVOIDING POTENTIAL PITFALLS 230 C H A P T E R 1 3 USING FINISHING MEDIUMS 238 Curing 240 Finishing for Aesthetic Reasons 241 Finishing for Lightfastness 242 Varnishing 242 C O N C L U S I O N 244 A P P E N D I X 1 M E D I U M S R O U N D TA B L E 250 A P P E N D I X 2 A C R Y L I C M E D I U M S Q U E S T I O N N A I R E 255 C O N T R I B U T I N G A R T I S T S 263 A B O U T T H E P H O T O G R A P H E R S 264 A B O U T A L I C E T E I C H E R T 265 P R O D U C T C R E D I T S 265 I N D E X 266 A B O U T T H E A U T H O R 271 ABOVE Marie-Claude Delcourt, Crossing Over, 2015, acrylic on canvas, textured with acrylic mediums including gel medium, glass bead gel, and string gel, 40 x 60 inches (102 x 152 cm). Collection of the artist.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS As solitary as the act of conceiving, writing, and organizing a book of this sort is, it does take a great many people to give it substance and bring it to life. The people at Tri-Art Manufacturing and the products they create are the soul of this book. These products give life to my creative impulses. Tri-Arts? high-quality materials are the best I have worked with, and I am proud to be a part of the company. Everyone at Tri-Art, from the owner and brilliant visionary behind the company, my husband Steve Ginsberg, to the last labeler, has given their support to this project. My thanks, too, to Evan and Jess and the Art Noise staff for their support and assistance throughout the completion of this project. Producing the photographs for this book has been a joy. My team'Jonathan Sugarman (photography), Connie Morris (photography), and Grace Paulionis (styling)'has been able to translate and capture my love of painting materials and the painting process. These photos, our collective art, elevate and celebrate my obsession with mediums to breathtaking effect. Many thanks to my art community (local and online) for partaking in my acrylic mediums roundtable discussion and exploration. Your input was invaluable. I thank Lori Richards, Sue Langlois, Jane Colden, Heather Haynes, Beth ten Hove, Diane Black, Babi Sugarman, Mat Poirier, Kyla Munro, Suzanne Charo, Pauline Conley, Drew Harris, Marie Lannoo, Laurens Hoste, Peter John Reid, Jeanne Krabbendam, Marnelle North, Heidi Bergeron, Joslyn Wilson, Margaret Mclauchlan, and all of those on Facebook who took the time to fill out my questionnaire. I also appreciate the advice and conversations about acrylic paint use and conservation with Alison Murray and Michael O'Malley from the Art Conservation department of Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario). This book was made possible by the hard work of my stellar team at The Monacelli Press. I am so very grateful to Victoria Craven for reaching out and working together with me to conceive of the concept for this book, and for her patience and guidance as we developed and produced its contents. Thanks to James Waller, project editor, whose calm, precise, and meticulous editorial skills have honed and polished my manuscript into a cohesive whole (while keeping my tendency to run amok in check). Thank you to Jennifer K. Beal Davis, designer, for her delicious and sophisticated execution of the the harmonious design and layout of this book. Lastly, thank you in particular to Ma for proofreading, to Steve, Mica, and Tilda for your support and patience, and to everyone in my extended family and my closest friends, for your encouragement and support through all aspects of this project.
10 FOREWORD: TWO MEDIUMS by Alice Teichert In my world, everything has a melody, a music within. Likewise, each medium I work with is unique, with its own specific, physical attributes to explore and embrace. Over the course of creating with acrylic mediums, a visual notation slowly reveals itself to me. It realizes as a resonance much like the ripples of a language dancing through space, water, and time. The layering aspect is vital in my painting process. The layers ultimately enable me to move deeper into a playful dance of light and textural exchanges'a space devoid of known references. I have always nurtured the need to examine the media I work with. I also strive to become a conduit for the energy that exists beyond simple cognitive knowledge, color, texture, and flat planes. I have thus managed to develop my own connective links to the endless possibilities presented by acrylics. These links appear time and again throughout my paintings and are still the most successful ways to voice the fundamentals of my visual expression'transparency and translucency. Gloss gel medium for transparency and dry media ground for translucency: applied in successive layers, both find their own distinctive tone and character. Up to thirty fine-pigmented layers interspersed with other textures or graphic elements compose the signatures that are unique to my work. My work relies on immediacy, simplicity, fluidity, and spontaneity. But it takes time to get to know the mediums personally and to create one's own relationship with each one. Therefore, books on acrylic painting have always been a part of my studio and my personal resources. Instead of having to go through every trial and error on my own, I receive supportive assistance that enables me to speed up and thereby release my own creative process. Such is the case with this new guide to materials, techniques, and applications. Here, Rh'ni Tauchid offers a palpable sense of how mediums behave in relation to their various environments and applications. Her expertise is exceptionally well presented, a clarity essential for artists who want to explore with confidence the worlds that acrylic mediums have to offer. A bio of Alice Teichert appears on page 265. OPPOSITE Alice Teichert, Nuance, 2013, acrylic, thick pencil, and pastel crayons on canvas, 55 x 40 inches (140 x 102 cm). Private collection, Cobourg, Ontario, Canada. This composition uses successive applications of acrylic medium products in many fine layers to create an exchange between translucency and transparency, allowing the eye to penetrate the deeper layers while intensifying the viewer's gaze into the wide open space.
13 INTRODUCTION They are called auxiliary, accessories, additives, accompaniments to acrylic paints. But in point of fact, acrylic mediums are essential to acrylic painting today, and this book will show you why. An acrylic medium is a substance that is mixed or used with paint to impart a particular physical characteristic to the paint or to the painting's surface. They are the conduit through which painters can more vividly express color, form, and the poetry of surface. So while they may seem like sidekicks to the superhero that is color, mediums are the ones with the real superpowers. What artists know about acrylic mediums they primarily know from experimentation. These materials are just beginning to be explored in art classes and schools. We are all gathering information, teaching ourselves and each other'each of us a novice. The new educators are art-supplies stores? staff, manufacturers? materials consultants, and fellow artists and craftspeople.
ACRYLIC PAINTING MEDIUMS & METHODS 14 I first started painting with acrylics in the late 1970s, but it wasn't until the early '90s that I even became aware that there was such a thing as an acrylic medium. Before that, it was all just color and water to me. It took me years to uncover the complexity of this deceptively simple material. First, there was just the paint itself: it could be mixed with water, it adhered to a variety of supports, and it was easy to manipulate. But then came the confusion of differing formats: liquid acrylics, high-viscosity paints, acrylic inks! And finally the medley of mediums, exploding onto the marketplace with a staggering diversity of choices. Whoa, mind blown. I started by messing with them, to see what would happen. Just to see if I could correctly predict the results. But what began as a tactile exploration became a necessary and often revelatory exercise. Intuitive exploration is the ABOVE, LEFT Brush with gel medium and loosely mixed color. ABOVE, RIGHT Gloss gel with dioxazine violet and interference blue.
introduction 15 key to finding out how these materials can work as part of your creative process. Through my experimentation'and what writer Elizabeth calls 'the random hurricanes of outcome''I developed an understanding of the indispensable nature and deep potential of these materials. It's sometimes hard to smash your habits as an artist and to wade into unknown waters, be it with a new material, subject, or approach. And the world of acrylic mediums and additives is big'continuously expanding and bewildering to navigate. There is a widespread assumption that acrylic mediums are really useful only for goopy, loose, abstract-style paintings. But this tendency to associate mediums with less formal compositions inaccurately pigeonholes these tools, which can have a transformative effect on paintings of any style, from the very expressive and abstract to exquisitely detailed realism. ABOVE, RIGHT Acrylics are the thread with which I create my paintings. (The photo shows gloss gel tinted blue and extruded.)
ACRYLIC PAINTING MEDIUMS & METHODS 16 There is no single way to explore acrylic mediums. Consider this book a jumping-off point and let inspiration, fueled by information, take you the rest of the way. Mix your mediums together in varying proportions, throw water at them, sink objects into them, expand the parameters of your usual art practice. Become familiar with the essence of the materials and understand the principles behind the methods. Through this process your paintings will gain depth, dimension, and individuality. The photographs in this book portray mediums being used in both simple and complex ways. Many of the photos utilize my paintings as background. They are the culmination of years of experimentation with acrylic mediums, and an expression of my creative materials journey. (They also make terrific backdrops!) But, really, they're just starting points, showing you the potential of the materials and methods of application. It is up to you to interpret these tools to find your own creative voice. The results of your experimentation may not stick, but they'll leave a residue of knowledge, and knowledge always informs practice. Mediums will enhance your artwork if you allow them to shift your perceptions and your process. By using acrylic mediums, you will have more control over the outcome of your work, gaining the potential to produce work that has finesse, subtlety, and sophistication or'if you wish'bold, lush textural expressions. ABOVE Iridescent color mixes into various liquid mediums, the birthplace of new ideas. OPPOSITE Lorena Kloosterboer, Tempus ad Requiem V, 2015, acrylic on canvas, 31 1'2 x 153'4 inches (80 x 40 cm). Private collection, UK. About her work, artist Lorena Kloosterboer says, 'I build up the support with many layers of gesso and wet-sand it to obtain a smooth surface, hiding the texture of the canvas. I trace my composition, then carefully build up transparent layers of color by diluting my acrylics with gloss medium and a bit of water laced with flow improver, which helps glazes run more easily. When I'm happy with an area, I protect it with a layer of pure gloss medium? a 100 percent acrylic polymer dispersion, basically an acrylic paint without color pigments that dries crystal clear'so that when I continue painting and make a mistake I can quickly wipe the top layer off with a wet sponge without damaging previous work. Once I'm finished, I cover my painting with an isolation coat of gloss medium. To protect the painting surface and change the surface luster, I varnish with a mixture of gloss and matte varnish for a satin sheen.'
ACRYLIC PAINTING MEDIUMS & METHODS 18 WHY USE MEDIUMS? Mediums are diverse and they are legion, and only by getting to know them can you assess their necessity in your art-making process. Mediums are indispensable to some painters, while others paint successfully without mediums. Using them is a choice, not an imperative. I will stress, however, that mediums can expand the physical capabilities and attributes of your colors, can enable you to express variety and depth in your paintings, and are economical to use. You will do well to give them a serious look. ABOVE An assortment of acrylic mediums and additives.
introduction 19 ABOVE Phthalo green diluted with (from left to right) water, liquid medium, gel medium, granular medium, and recycled plastic medium. The black line illustrates the relative coverage (transparency/opacity) of the paint mixtures. EXPANSION Mediums make good things better. Why settle for salt and pepper when there's a whole world of herbs and spices available to you? Mediums increase everything: size, textural capability, transparency, strength of the paint film. They are the great augmenters of color. For example, desaturating a strong color can bring out the bright undertone of a professional-grade color, imparting a lush depth to a transparent pigment. EXPRESSION Changing the physical appearance of acrylic paints in innumerable ways, mediums offer a staggering variety of expressive choices. They are capable of changing many aspects of painting, from adhesion and transparency to surface texture and luster. However you want your paints to look or feel, there is a medium for that.
266 INDEX INDEX Page numbers in italics indicate works of artists A acrylic skin chair sculpting, 180 flexibility of, 176'178 lamp sculpting, 178, 179 making/storing, 181 painting, 115, 185 additives vs acrylic mediums, 90 flow release, 91'92 in gel mediums, 70 in liquid mediums, 59, 65 textural, 77'78 types of, 31 See also retarders adhesives in collage, 222 gel medium, 71 in layering, 152 liquid medium, 64, 66 polymer emulsion binder, 216 and supports, 110 used by acrylic painters, 260, 262 aerosol finishing mediums, 94 airbrush, 92 alla prima application (impasto), 39, 104, 145 aluminum supports, 112, 113 armatures, creating, 182 Artoyz Qee paintable toys, 173 B bamboo skewers, 107 Bantock, Nick, 219 bas relief, 78, 146'149 binders, 216 Black, Diane, 162, 163 black ground, 54, 55'56 blending mediums, 159'161 bristle brushes, 103, 104 brushes, 53 bristle, 103, 104 fan, 96, 97, 105 synthetic, 96, 98'99, 103 textural effects of, 104'105 bubble level, 76 bubbles, in medium, 232'233 buckled surface, 44 C cake-decorating tool, 108 canvas supports, 112, 113 cost and quality, 116? 117 preparing, 130, 134 Capolongo, Bruno, 252? 253, 254, 255 carving surface, 173 Catalyst tools, 101, 107, 108, 145 ceramics in collage, 220, 221 as support, 135 collage, 64, 87, 218'224 color bas relief with, 148'149 blending, 78, 79 changes from wet to dry, 126'128 charts, 29 desaturating, 19 effect of medium on, 32 extending, 38, 65, 69, 70'71, 198'199 fluid painting, 49'50, 167'168 in gesso, 52, 53 liquid medium, 59 luster of, 37 mixing medium with, 203, 214 organic/inorganic, 203 palette, 110 perception of, 55'56 and pouring medium, 76, 166'167 and relative coverage, 38'39, 206'209 self-leveling gel, 76 and textured mediums, 78, 79 thinning, 204, 206 transparency of, 26, 38, 66, 71, 78 See also paint, acrylic; paint-medium combination; pigment color fastness, of collage materials, 222 color field, diffuse, 208? 209 color shapers, 100, 103, 106, 215 color theory, 244 combining mediums, 159'161 concrete support, 134 Conley, Pauline, 173 copper cinder gel, 80 Courtemanche, Marc, 180 crackle medium, 87, 226, 230 crazing/cracking, 44, 234 curing, 46, 240'241 custom mediums finishing, 93'95 flow release, 91'92 materials for, 88'89 retarding agents, 90'91 D decoupage, 64, 224 Delany, Mary, 224 depth/distance, 36, 66 Desjardins, Claire, 75 direct transfer, 190'192 distressed surface, 174 drying color change in, 126? 128 curing process, 240? 241 effects of water on, 44, 46 with hairdryer, 233 shrinkage during, 40 testing for, 125 drying time and layering, 73, 152 liquid medium, 59, 62, 125 retarding agents, 90 and sculpting, 182'184 self-leveling/pouring gels, 76 dry media ground, 10 application of, 138'139 characteristics of, 57 in mixed media, 82, 83, 225 E economical benefits of mediums, 20 equipment. See tools and supplies etching surface, 173 extruding tools, 170'171 F fabric, in collage, 220 fan brushes, 96, 97, 105 fiberboard support, 134 fiber gel, 80 fiberglass support, 112, 135 fiber paste, 78 fibers, in collage, 220 finishing mediums
index 267 aesthetics of, 241'242 application of, 94 characteristics of, 93 curing process, 240? 241 for lightfastness, 242 reasons for using, 238, 257'258 testing, 240 top coats, 95, 238, 241 and varnishes, 94, 238, 241, 242? 243 finish layer, 200'202 Fischer, Marion, 152, 153 floating colors in pouring medium, 49'50, 167'168 flow release, 91'92 fluid mediums. See liquid mediums fluid painting, 49'50, 167 foam board support, 135 framing/mounting, and support selection, 114 G gel mediums characteristics of, 70 in combining mediums, 159, 160 defined, 69 glazing, 71 gloss, 10, 72, 73 pouring, 74'76 selecting, 62 self-leveling, 62, 63, 74'76, 159, 160, 205, 236 shrinkage of, 40 spreading, 215 and texture, 69, 70, 71 textured, 77'83, 88, 89 uses for, 70'72 and viscosity, 205 wet to dry color change, 128 gesso black, 54, 55'56 characteristics of, 53 and clarity, 232 colored, 52, 53 do-overs of failed paintings, 140 function of, 53, 55 ingredients in, 38, 39, 51'52, 232 priming support with, 51, 130, 133, 136 selecting, 52, 116 glass gel, recycled, 80 glass supports, 112, 114 glazing, 210'213 vs washes, 207 glazing medium, 58, 65, 66, 71, 124, 125, 241 gloss gel medium, 10, 72, 73 gloss medium, 37, 38, 154, 198, 200, 212 gloss surfaces, 36, 37, 169, 202, 203 gold leaf, 89 granular mediums, 62, 63, 124, 155 and texture, 40, 77, 80, 150'151 wet to dry color change, 129 granular particulates, 31, 80, 124 grounds do-overs of failed paintings, 140? 141 priming supports, 51, 130'139 See also dry media ground; gesso; modeling paste H Hadfield, Chris, 82 hairdryer, 233 hand marks, 108 Haynes, Heather, 216, 217 humectant, 125 I illustration board support, 135 impasto (alla prima application), 39, 104, 145 incising surface, 172? 175 indirect transfer, 193? 195 insect wings, in collage, 221 K Kloosterboer, Lorena, 16, 17, 131, 213 L labels, product, 29 Lamont, Suzy, 224 lamp, acrylic skin, 178, 179 Lannoo, Marie, 84, 85 laser-printed images, 189 layering mediums and colors, 10, 73, 78, 154'158, 214'215 leather support, 135 lightfastness, finishing for, 242 linen supports, 112 cost and quality, 116'117 preparing, 130, 134 liquid (polymer) mediums additives in, 59, 65 characteristics of, 58'59, 64 forms of, 58, 65 glazing, 58, 65, 66, 124, 125 luminosity, 66, 68 opacifying, 84 poise number, 34 uses for, 34, 58, 62, 65'66 vs water, 69 wet to dry color change, 127 working with, 60'61 liquid mirror, 32 lubricating paint, 65, 70 luminosity, liquid medium, 66, 68 luster and blending mediums, 159 controlling, 199'203 dry media ground, 57 gel mediums, 70, 71'72 gesso, 53 and gloss factor, 36'37 liquid mediums, 58, 59, 66 modeling paste, 56 of paint film, 222 pouring mediums, 74 self-leveling gels, 74 textured gels, 77, 80
268 INDEX M magazine clippings, in collage, 221 marble dust, 220 masking, 189 masonry support, 134 materials. See tools and supplies matte medium, 37, 38, 154'155, 200, 203, 206, 212, 232 matte surfaces, 36, 46? 47, 169, 202 matting agents, 37, 38? 39, 159 mediums, acrylic brands of, 21 categories of. See custom mediums; finishing mediums; gel mediums; grounds; liquid (polymer) mediums; specialuse mediums; water defined, 13, 30 descriptive terms for, 33'40 do's and don'ts, 232? 234 effect on color, 32 exploring/ experimenting with, 13'16, 162, 247'249 functions of, 18'20, 24, 196'215 ingredients of, 31 selecting, 62 technical-knowledge database for, 28'29 trial-and-error process with, 230 use in acrylic painting world, 250'251, 255'262 See also techniques; tools and supplies metal in collage, 220 in custom mediums, 88 as support, 134 metal leaf, in collage, 220 metallic powder, in collage, 220 methods. See techniques mixed media, 82, 83, 225'229 modeling paste characteristics of, 56 and clarity, 232 do-overs with, 140 ingredients in, 38, 39, 232 in layering, 155 preparing surface with, 136'137 and viscosity, 205 Morris, Connie, 211, 223 Mylar glitter, in collage, 221 Mylar supports, 112, 115, 135 N nepheline gel, 77, 150, 151, 159, 160 newspaper clippings, in collage, 221 O opacifying medium, 84, 206, 232 opaque medium, 38, 39, 46, 206 opaque supports, 114 Oretsky, Barry, 55, 66, 67, 68 overpainting technique, 78 P paint, acrylic binders, 216 drying time, 59, 62, 67, 76, 90, 125, 152 ingredients of, 31 lubricating, 65, 70 pigment load, 124 viscosity, 34 water mixed with, 44, 45, 46'47 See also color paint film clarity of, 232 failure of, 234'235 porosity of, 46, 47, 168'169 and retarding agents, 90'91 as support, 115 See also drying; drying time; finishing mediums paint-medium combinations and drying time, 125 layering, 10, 73, 78, 154'158, 214'215 sketch as basis for, 122'123 subtlety of, 124 and support selection, 114 wet to dry color change, 126'128 paint skin. See acrylic skin palette knives, 49, 100, 161 large-format, 98, 106, 184 plastic, 103, 105 textural effects, 105 palettes, nonstick, 109, 185 paper in collage, 220 decoupage, 224 as support, 112, 115, 116, 130, 134, 135 pastry bags, for extrusion, 161, 170 pete plastic gel, 80, 151 pigment in gesso and modeling paste, 31, 38, 39, 51'52, 56, 132, 137 load, 124 and luster, 37 See also color plaster, in collage, 221 plastic support, 112, 114, 135 plexiglas support, 112, 114, 134 poise (P), 34 Poiseuille, Jean L'onard, 34 polymer emulsion, 87, 95, 216 polymer medium. See liquid (polymer) mediums porosity, 46, 47, 168'169 pouring medium, 74'76, 164'168, 205, 215 primers, 114 priming grounds, 51, 130'141 Princeton Artist Brush Co., 101, 145 printers, 189 printing plates, 175 printmaking papers, 116 propylene glycol retarder, 90 pumice gel, 77 R reflectivity, 36, 132, 202 relative coverage and color, 38'39, 206'209 dry media ground, 57 and dry state, 38 gel mediums, 70 gesso, 53 liquid mediums, 58 modeling paste, 56 pouring mediums, 74 self-leveling gels, 74 textured gels, 77, 80 water, 47 resins, 90, 94, 95 resists, mediums as, 168'169 retarders flow release, 91'92 functions of, 90'91 gels, 175, 212 in glaze, 212, 241
index 269 rheology and blending mediums, 159 dry media ground, 57 gel mediums, 70 gesso, 53 liquid mediums, 58 modeling paste, 56 pouring mediums, 74, 205 self-leveling gels, 74, 205 short and long, 35 textured gels, 77, 80 water, 47 Richards, Lori, 158, 196, 197 S sand, in collage, 221 sculpting armatures in, 182 chair, 180 and drying time, 182'184 flexibility of acrylic skins, 176'178 lamp, 178, 179 making/storing acrylic skins, 181 sealing vs finishing medium, 238 gel medium, 72 liquid medium, 66 self-leveling gel, 62, 63, 74'76, 159, 160, 205, 215, 236 semigloss medium, 37, 38, 154'155, 200 semigloss surfaces, 36, 203 sheen (reflectivity), 36 shrinkage, 40 Simpson, Heather, 59, 60, 61 Sizaya, Ksenia, 142, 143 sketching, 122'123 snakeskin, in collage, 221 solvents, 103 special-use mediums crackling, 87 opacifying, 84 UV reactive, 84, 86 UV stabilizing, 86'87 spreading tools, 100 stenciling, 186'188 stone in collage, 221 as support, 112 stoneware, in collage, 220, 221 straightedge tool, 184, 215 string gel, 74 suede support, 135 supplies. See tools and supplies supports cost and quality of, 116'1117 longevity of, 110 paper, 112, 115, 116 pre-primed, 130 selection criteria for, 112'115 types of, 112 weight of, 113 supports, preparing dry media ground, 138'139 gesso, 51, 130, 133, 136 modeling paste, 136'137 priming decision, 130'133 type of support, 134'135 T tar gel, 74 Tauchid, Rh'ni, 10, 102, 157, 160, 171, 172, 173, 178, 179, 185, 187, 189, 206, 210, 214, 236, 237, 247 techniques acrylic skin painting, 185 acrylic skin sculpting. See sculpting collage, 64, 87, 218? 224 color field, 208'209 combining mediums, 159'161 decoupage, 224 dramatic effects, 252'253 extruding mediums, 170'171 fluid painting, 49'50, 167 glazing, 210'213 incising surface, 172'175 layering mediums/ colors, 10, 73, 78, 154'158, 214'215 masking, 189 mixed media, 82, 83, 225'229 pouring mediums, 74'76, 164'168 printing plates, 175 resists, 168'169 stenciling, 186'188 used by acrylic painters, 262 See also grounds; paint-medium combinations; supports, preparing; texture, creating; transferring images Teichert, Alice, 10, 11, 73 ten Hove, Beth, 45, 46, 234, 235 texture do-overs, 140'141 dry media ground, 57 formats for, 39'40 gel mediums, 69, 70, 71, 77, 80 gels, textured, 77'83, 88, 89 gesso, 53 liquid mediums, 58 modeling paste, 56 pouring mediums, 74 self-leveling gels, 74 texture, creating, 142 bas relief, 146'149 granular, 150'151 impasto (alla prima application), 145 tools for, 100, 101, 104'108, 144 types of textures, 144 thinning color/medium, 46, 204, 206 three-dimensional works. See sculpting tools and supplies brands, 117 cleaning, 103 cost and quality of, 116'117 extruding, 161, 170? 171 for impasto, 145 nontraditional, 98, 100'101 palettes, nonstick, 109, 185 for sculpting, 184 selection criteria, 103 size of, 98'99 spreading, 215 textural effects of, 100, 101, 104? 108, 144 See also brushes; palette knives; supports top coats, 95, 238, 241 transferring images direct transfer, 190? 192 indirect transfer, 193'195 reproduction of work, 189'190 translucency, 10, 38'39, 154'155 transparency, 10 increasing, 66, 71, 206 in layering, 154'155 and relative coverage, 38 and support selection, 114'115
270 INDEX transportation, and support selection, 113 Tri-Art Manufacturing, 21, 80 U ultraviolet (UV) reactive medium, 84, 86 ultraviolet (UV) stabilizing medium, 86'87 ultraviolet light stabilizer (UVLS), 87, 95, 242, 243 urethane-based top coats, 95 V varnishing, 94, 238, 241, 242'243 viscosity, 40, 42 and blending mediums, 159 dry media ground, 57 and extending color, 198'199 gel mediums, 70, 71 gesso, 53 increasing, 71, 203, 205 liquid mediums, 58, 66 measurement of, 34 modeling paste, 56 pouring mediums, 74, 164 reducing, 46, 203, 204 and rheology, 35 self-leveling gels, 74 textured gels, 77, 80 water, 47 volatiles, 90, 91 W walnut shell gel, 78, 80 washes, 206, 207 water characteristics of, 47 delaminating with, 48 effects on paint mixed with, 44'47 excess of, 233 fluid painting, 49'50 vs liquid medium, 69 thinning with, 46, 204, 206 uses for, 48 water fastness, of collage materials, 222 water resistance, 66, 91, 168 weatherstripping tool, 184 wedge tool, 107 wire brush, 107 Wood, Sharlena, 82, 83, 225, 227'229 wood in collage, 221 as support, 112, 113, 117, 130, 134 wooden-handled tools, 103 Y Yamada, Heather Midori, 110, 111
271 ABOUT THE AUTHOR Rh'ni Tauchid (www.rhenitauchid.com) is a writer, painter, and educator. In her professional life, Rh'ni is the materials consultant for the Canadian acrylic paint manufacturer Tri-Art Mfg., Inc., a member of the company's product development team, and the founder of the Tri-Art Acrylic Education Program and the Art Noise studio program. She teaches painting workshops and lectures in Canada and abroad. Rh'ni is the author of The New Acrylics: Complete Guide to the New Generation of Acrylic Paints (Watson-Guptill, 2005) and its sequel, New Acrylics Essential Sourcebook: Materials, Techniques, and Contemporary Applications for Today's Artist (Watson-Guptill, 2009). Her books have been translated into Dutch and German. Acrylic Painting Mediums & Methods, her third book, explores the intricacies and possibilities of acrylic mediums. She is based in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.