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Soccer School Season 2: Where Soccer Explains (Saves) the World

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Published by Walker Books US on 2018-11-13
Hardcover: $15.99
JUVENILE FICTION, SPORTS and RECREATION, FICTION / Graphic Novels, HUMOR


Soccer School is back in session and ready to defend its goal: to explain the world through soccer.

Coaches Alex Bellos and Ben Lyttleton return with even more proof that soccer can be used to teach kids about pretty much anything. The second book in their funny, fascinating series is full of facts about the most popular sport in the world, from history to language, design to psychology. When did women begin playing soccer? Why do lefties have an advantage on the field? Which soccer stadium was built in the shape of a crocodile? Perfect for soccer players, fans, or just plain curious kids, this series is packed with information and amusement in equal measure. Goal!


(Hardcover, 2018-11-13)
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ASIN: 1536204366
ISBN: 9781536204360
EAN: 9781536204360

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Name: Football School Kickito Ergo Sum Coaches: Class:

First published 2017 by Walker Books Ltd 87 Vauxhall Walk, London SE11 5HJ 2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1 Text ? 2017 Alex Bellos and Ben Lyttleton Illustrations ? 2017 Spike Gerrell The right of Alex Bellos and Ben Lyttleton, and Spike Gerrell to be identifi ed as authors and illustrator respectively of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 This book has been typeset in Palatino Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon CR0 4YY All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, transmitted or stored in an information retrieval system in any form or by any means, graphic, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, taping and recording, without prior written permission from the publisher. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data: a catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-4063-6725-6 www.walker.co.uk www.footballschool.co To Ois'n, Rohan and Aoife ? A.B. To Sonny, Ollo and G.G. ? B.L. For Kaz, Ethan and Stevie ? S.G.

WHERE FOOTBALL EXPLAINS EXPLAINS THE THE WORLD WORLD Illustrated by Spike Gerrell WHERE FOOTBALL EXPLAINS EXPLAINS EXPLAINS THE THE EXPLAINS

It's great to see you again. I'm Alex. And I'm Ben. We're your teachers. Or coaches, because at Football School every lesson is about Or coaches, because at Football School every lesson is about Or coaches, because at Football football. Our favourite kind of lesson! We believe you can learn loads about the world through football. In physics, we'll be expanding our minds with the fact that footballs are not truly round! In physics, we'll be expanding our minds with the fact that footballs are not truly round! In physics, we'll be expanding our minds with In geography, we'll be sniffing around dinosaur poo to discover what it tells us about grass. In geography, we'll be sniffing around dinosaur poo to discover what it tells us about grass. In geography, we'll be sniffing around dinosaur And in biology, we will find out whether boys or girls are more likely to be left-footed. And in biology, we will find out whether boys or girls are more likely to be left-footed. And in biology, we will find out whether boys Right! No, left! Welcome to Football School Season 2!

You're going to be amazed by: The women who were once the most famous footballers in Britain. And the most awesome stadiums in the world. In order to find the best football stories we have spoken to loads of brilliant people. Like the player who speaks EIGHT languages. And the best mower in the Premier League. You will also meet our star pupils. They are outstanding in their subjects! We have a quiz at the end of each lesson. You can be a star pupil too if you get the answers right. We bet We have a quiz at the end of each lesson. You can be a star pupil too if you get the answers right. We bet We have a quiz at the end of each lesson. You can be you'll get more right than your friends and family. Extra! Extra! This season we have introduced after school clubs with lots of activities you can do at home. They will exercise your muscles and your mind. Because everything at Football School is designed to make you a better footballer. And a smarter one too!

ALEX BELLINHOS BELLOS BELLOS Birthplace: Oxford Height: 5ft 8ins Colour of hair: Black Favourite number: 22 Cool fact about home: Can see Wembley Stadium from my window Favourite school subject: Maths Favourite book while at school: The Hobbit Keepy-uppy record: 22 Favourite player: Garrincha (Brazil) Favourite footballers? haircut: Marouane Fellaini (curly and proud of it!) Favourite goal: Archie Gemmill for Scotland against The Netherlands in the 1978 World Cup Football dream: Heart of Midlothian win the Champions League Tudo bem, Tudo bem, amigo? Tudo bem, amigo? Tudo bem, MEET YOUR COACHES Tudo bem,

BEN BEN THE PEN LYTTLETON LYTTLETON Birthplace: London Height: 6ft Colour of hair: Brown Favourite number: 8 Cool fact about home: There's a park end of my road for extra football practicetheat Favourite school subject: English Favourite book while at school: Treasure Island Keepy-uppy record: 94 Favourite player: Ousmane Demb'l? (France) Favourite footballers? haircut: The (short sides, long at back) worn 1990s England player Chris Waddlethemulletby Favourite goal: Antonin Panenka's penalty in 1976 European Championshipschipped penalty in 1976 European Championships Football dream: Getting the call-up Getting the call-up Getting the call-up to play for England Penalty, ref! Penalty, ref! Penalty, ref!

TIMETABLE TIMETABLE TIMETABLE MONDAY TUESDAY REGISTRATION LESSON 1 PSHE 10'21 HISTORY 54'65 LESSON 2 LESSON 3 MODERN LANGUAGES 22'39 GEOGRAPHY 66'77 LESSON 4 LUNCH LESSON 5 PHYSICS 40'51 FILM STUDIES 78'91 AFTER SCHOOL CLUB FEET 52'53 MIND 92'93 Are you as smart as our Star Pupils'

WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY 8.30'8.40AM DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY 94'109 BIOLOGY 138'151 ART 178'189 ENGLISH 110'121 MATHS 152'163 1.00'2.00PM RELIGIOUS STUDIES 122'135 PSYCHOLOGY 164'175 BUSINESS STUDIES 190'201 BALANCE 136'137 HEALTH 176'177 RECOVERY 202'203 Find the answers to the quizzes on page 206. But no cheating!

10 What squad number should I be? What squad number should I be? What squad number should I be? Depends what Depends what position URINE! position URINE! I'm in midfield. I'm in midfield. Wee-ally bad. Wee-ally bad. Then, URINATE! Then, URINATE! PSHE PSHE Monday Lesson 1+2 Lesson 1+2 Lesson 1+2

HFootball H ello, everyone! It's the beginning of Season 2 at School, and we're going to start by revealing Football School, and we're going to start by revealing a stinky ritual that footballers perform at the beginning of every season. Professional footballers must provide their clubs with small tubes of their fi nest pee! Can you imagine it? Yuck! But it's true. The players all head to the loo, where each of them piddles into a small container. They hand over the fl ask of their warm, golden liquid to the team doctors, who test it. Pee is mostly water, but it also contains small amounts of other substances. Doctors check these substances for health problems like infection, diabetes and disease, which may otherwise go unnoticed. In this lesson we'll fi nd out what you can learn from your pee. We'll be looking at the water system in our bodies: fl uids go in, fl uids go out, and fl uids go all about. Are you thirsty for this knowledge? Drink up!

12 WATER WORKS Water has no colour, no taste and no smell. Sounds like a really boring liquid! But that's not true. Water keeps us alive. Inside our bodies, water is working non-stop doing all these jobs: Making our food mushy so it can pass through our digestive system Helping blood and nutrients circulate around our body Regulating our body temperature Making our joints move smoothly Making our joints move smoothly Removing waste products Removing waste products in pee Water does so much for Water does so much for us that we need lots of it. In us that we need lots of it. In fact, there is so much water fact, there is so much water in our bodies that it makes up about 60 per cent of our up about 60 per cent of our bodyweight. Humans aren't bodyweight. Humans aren't really fl esh and blood. We're really fl esh and blood. We're mostly water! A healthy adult can go without food for around a month, providing they are allowed water. (We don't recommend trying it!) But an adult cannot live for more than three or four days more than three or four days without water. Humans need water to survive.

13 A SWEATY JOB Water goes into our bodies in the form of food and drink. Water goes into our bodies in the form of food and drink. Water leaves our bodies in our pee and sweat. There are also small amounts in our poo and breath. We'll come to pee later, but fi rst here's the juice about sweat. pee later, but fi rst here's the juice about sweat. Sweat is the body's tool for cooling itself down. When the weather is hot or we're exercising, our bodies warm up and we sweat. Sweat is made up almost entirely of water, with a pinch of salt, which is why it tastes a bit salty. On the surface of our skin are millions of sweat glands, which are tiny tubes that produce sweat. When sweat comes out of the glands it appears on the outside of the skin. Once the sweat is on the skin's surface, it starts to disappear into the air, a process skin's surface, it starts to disappear into the air, a process called evaporation. When the sweat evaporates it takes . When the sweat evaporates it takes the heat from your body. And when the body loses heat, it the heat from your body. And when the body loses heat, it cools down. The hotter our bodies get, the more we The hotter our bodies get, the more we sweat. Everyone sweats different amounts. sweat. Everyone sweats different amounts. It depends on things like your build and It depends on things like your build and fi tness levels. Sportspeople sweat a lot. Footballers Sportspeople sweat a lot. Footballers will sweat between one and two litres will sweat between one and two litres will sweat between one and two litres during a game, which is equivalent to during a game, which is equivalent to four to eight glasses of water. In the four to eight glasses of water. In the summer when it is really hot, players summer when it is really hot, players can sweat up to four litres, or sixteen can sweat up to four litres, or sixteen glasses of water, which is around 5 per cent of their bodyweight in 5 per cent of their bodyweight in sweat. Phew!

WATER LEVELS WATER LEVELS If we have the right amount of water in our bodies, we say we are hydrated. If we have too little water in our bodies from sweating or not drinking enough, we are dehydrated. It is never good to be dehydrated. It can give you headaches, increase tiredness, make you lose concentration and PUT YOU IN A REALLY BAD MOOD. In fact, you should see Alex when he's dehydrated! Footballers are careful to avoid dehydration because it affects their game. One team doctor told us that a 5 per cent reduction in the amount of water in a body can result in a 20 per cent drop in performance. On the pitch, dehydration can cause: Slower reaction times Worse coordination Reduced control of the joints Increased chance of strains and sprains To make sure players are properly hydrated, they need to make sure they replace the water lost through sweating. That's why players are often sipping drinks during the stops in play.

TAKING THE PEE TAKING THE PEE Back to the other main way our bodies lose water: through the urinary system, which makes pee. The important organs in the urinary system are the kidneys and the bladder. We are born with two kidneys, although we only need one to be working in order to have a normal life. Urine, or pee, is made in the kidneys, and then travels to the bladder via the ureter. When the bladder is nearly full, our brain tells us we need to go to the loo. Pee then passes out of the body through the urethra. Ureter Bladder Urethra Kidney THE URINARY SYSTEM

16 CLEVER KIDS CLEVER KIDS The kidneys make sure our bodies contain the right The kidneys make sure our bodies contain the right amount of water. In order to understand how they do this, we need to In order to understand how they do this, we need to follow the path of water after it's entered our mouths. follow the path of water after it's entered our mouths. First the water fl ows down into the stomach, then into the First the water fl ows down into the stomach, then into the intestines where it gets absorbed into our bloodstream. intestines where it gets absorbed into our bloodstream. Here is where the kidneys come in. When blood passes Here is where the kidneys come in. When blood passes through the kidneys, the kidneys fi lter the blood and through the kidneys, the kidneys fi lter the blood and extract water and waste chemicals from it. This water and extract water and waste chemicals from it. This water and the waste chemicals eventually become pee. the waste chemicals eventually become pee. But our kidneys are smart. If the body is dehydrated, then much of the extracted water is reabsorbed back into the blood. But if the body is well hydrated, the extracted water becomes pee because the body doesn't need it. pee because the body doesn't need it. In other words, the kidneys decide how much urine to make based on how well hydrated the body is. Clever kidneys! The colour of your pee depends on how much water The colour of your pee depends on how much water the kidneys extract. If a person is properly hydrated, then the kidneys extract. If a person is properly hydrated, then the kidneys will release lots of water. The pee will be light the kidneys will release lots of water. The pee will be light yellow because the waste chemicals in it have been watered yellow because the waste chemicals in it have been watered down or diluted. But if a person is dehydrated, the kidneys will not But if a person is dehydrated, the kidneys will not release much water and the pee will be dark yellow or even release much water and the pee will be dark yellow or even orangey brown, since the waste chemicals will be much orangey brown, since the waste chemicals will be much stronger or concentrated. concentrated.

HOW'S MY PEE? HOW'S MY PEE? We visited one professional football club where there is a pee colour chart in the toilets. The chart has lots of shades of yellow, from light to dark. The players use the colour The players use the colour chart to check that their pee is one chart to check that their pee is one of the lighter shades of yellow, of the lighter shades of yellow, which means they are properly which means they are properly hydrated. If their pee is too dark hydrated. If their pee is too dark they are dehydrated and need to they are dehydrated and need to drink some water. drink some water. Next time you go to the loo, Next time you go to the loo, look at the colour of your pee. If look at the colour of your pee. If it is light yellow, you are drinking it is light yellow, you are drinking enough water. If it is dark yellow, enough water. If it is dark yellow, you might want to drink a little you might want to drink a little more today. If it is bright red, you more today. If it is bright red, you might have been eating beetroot! might have been eating beetroot! might have been eating beetroot! might have been eating beetroot! WEE LOVE IT! Many people around the world drink their own pee. They do so because they believe it is good for their health, and may even cure some diseases, even though there is no may even cure some diseases, even though there is no scientifi c proof that this scientifi c proof that this is true. Famous peeis true. Famous peedrinkers include a drinkers include a prime minister of prime minister of India and a world India and a world champion boxer from champion boxer from Mexico. Knock out! Mexico. Knock out!

18 TO PEE OR TO PEE OR TO PEE OR TO PEE OR NOT TO PEE? NOT TO PEE? NOT TO PEE? NOT TO PEE? As well as water and waste As well as water and waste substances, urine can show signs of substances, urine can show signs of disease and infection, which is why club disease and infection, which is why club doctors check their players? pee. Urine can doctors check their players? pee. Urine can also contain evidence that footballers have also contain evidence that footballers have been taking performance-enhancing drugs, performance-enhancing drugs which are banned. If you are taking drugs, they get in your bloodstream. The kidneys will extract them and put them in your pee. There's no hiding when it comes to the urinary system. For this reason, professional footballers are often asked to provide a urine sample at training or straight after a match. The pee police ? known as Doping Control Offi cers (DCO) ? then check the sample for any banned chemicals. When a DCO asks a player for a urine sample, the offi cer must watch the player peeing into the tube, so they know it is fresh pee and not pee they could have stored earlier or got from someone else. But some people fi nd it very diffi cult to pee when they are being watched! Players also have to pee a certain amount, so if they have sweated a lot, they will need to drink loads in order to produce their sample, which can result in the player vomiting or peeing all night. One club doctor told us that sometimes players have taken hours to pee, which causes them huge embarrassment, since it can hold up the whole team from travelling home. Hurry up!

19 THANKS DAD Our kidneys are essential to our survival ? so it's a good job we have two. If one kidney stops working, you can get by with just the other one. But if both stop working then you will need to have a kidney transplant, which is when a healthy kidney is taken from someone else and put into your body. Sometimes a person's body will accept the new kidney, and that person may be able to regain full health. But sometimes the body will reject it, in which case a further transplant is needed. In 2007, Croatian striker Ivan Klasni? was diagnosed with kidney failure. His mum decided to give him one of her kidneys, but Ivan's body rejected it. Then his father gave him one of his and it worked. Klasni? recovered well enough to play for Croatia at Euro 2008 and scored two goals in the competition, making him the fi rst kidney transplant patient to compete at a major tournament. Sadly, however, his father's kidney stopped working properly in 2016, and Klasni? is now on the waiting list for a third donor. EURO 2008

20 URINE GOAL Argentine goalkeeper Sergio Goycochea had a wee-ird habit before penalty shoot-outs. He would crouch behind the line in his own goal and wee onto the pitch through his shorts. The fi rst time he did it was in the 1990 World Cup quarter-fi nal against Yugoslavia, and he saved two penalties and one hit the crossbar. A few days later he did the same trick in the semi-fi nal against competition host Italy, and he saved two more. 'It was my lucky charm,' he said. Longest wee: Longest wee: 1m 52s Bladder capacity: Bladder capacity: 700ml Number of sweat glands: Number of sweat glands: 2 million Daily water intake: Daily water intake: 1.5l Birthplace: Birthplace: Pee Pee Creek, Ohio, USA Ohio, USA Supports: Supports: Waterford (Ireland) Fave player: Fave player: Boy Waterman Trick: Dribbles everywhere Dribbles everywhere WILLIE P. STAINES STAR PUPIL STAR PUPIL Stats Fancy a drink? Fancy a drink? Fancy a Fancy a drink'

21 PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ PSHE QUIZ 1. What is the scientifi c 1. What is the scientifi c 1. What is the scientifi c 1. What is the scientifi c 1. What is the scientifi c 1. What is the scientifi c 1. What is the scientifi c 1. What is the scientifi c 1. What is the scientifi c 1. What is the scientifi c name for pee? name for pee? name for pee? name for pee? name for pee? name for pee? a) Bile a) Bile a) Bile a) Bile a) Bile a) Bile a) Bile b) Faeces b) Faeces b) Faeces b) Faeces b) Faeces b) Faeces b) Faeces b) Faeces b) Faeces c) Mucus c) Mucus c) Mucus c) Mucus d) Urine d) Urine d) Urine d) Urine 2. Which part of the body 2. Which part of the body 2. Which part of the body 2. Which part of the body 2. Which part of the body 2. Which part of the body 2. Which part of the body 2. Which part of the body 2. Which part of the body 2. Which part of the body 2. Which part of the body has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? has no sweat glands? a) The nose a) The nose a) The nose a) The nose a) The nose a) The nose a) The nose a) The nose a) The nose a) The nose a) The nose b) The lips b) The lips b) The lips b) The lips b) The lips b) The lips c) The ears c) The ears c) The ears c) The ears c) The ears c) The ears c) The ears c) The ears c) The ears c) The ears c) The ears d) The palms d) The palms d) The palms d) The palms d) The palms d) The palms of the hands of the hands of the hands of the hands of the hands 3. The chemical formula for 3. The chemical formula for 3. The chemical formula for 3. The chemical formula for 3. The chemical formula for 3. The chemical formula for 3. The chemical formula for 3. The chemical formula for 3. The chemical formula for 3. The chemical formula for 3. The chemical formula for 3. The chemical formula for water is H20. water is H water is H water is H water is H 2 What do the 0. What do the 0. What do the 0. What do the 0. What do the 0. What do the 0. What do the H and the O stand for? H and the O stand for? H and the O stand for? H and the O stand for? H and the O stand for? H and the O stand for? H and the O stand for? H and the O stand for? H and the O stand for? H and the O stand for? a) Hydrogen and Oxygen a) Hydrogen and Oxygen a) Hydrogen and Oxygen a) Hydrogen and Oxygen a) Hydrogen and Oxygen a) Hydrogen and Oxygen a) Hydrogen and Oxygen a) Hydrogen and Oxygen a) Hydrogen and Oxygen b) Hippo and Octopus b) Hippo and Octopus b) Hippo and Octopus b) Hippo and Octopus b) Hippo and Octopus b) Hippo and Octopus b) Hippo and Octopus b) Hippo and Octopus c) Humid and Omnipresent c) Humid and Omnipresent c) Humid and Omnipresent c) Humid and Omnipresent c) Humid and Omnipresent c) Humid and Omnipresent c) Humid and Omnipresent c) Humid and Omnipresent c) Humid and Omnipresent c) Humid and Omnipresent d) Hazard and Ozil d) Hazard and Ozil d) Hazard and Ozil d) Hazard and Ozil d) Hazard and Ozil d) Hazard and Ozil d) Hazard and Ozil 4. Which food gives your 4. Which food gives your 4. Which food gives your 4. Which food gives your 4. Which food gives your 4. Which food gives your 4. Which food gives your 4. Which food gives your 4. Which food gives your 4. Which food gives your pee a strong smell? pee a strong smell? pee a strong smell? pee a strong smell? pee a strong smell? pee a strong smell? pee a strong smell? pee a strong smell? a) Asparagus a) Asparagus a) Asparagus a) Asparagus a) Asparagus a) Asparagus a) Asparagus a) Asparagus a) Asparagus a) Asparagus a) Asparagus b) Aubergine b) Aubergine b) Aubergine b) Aubergine b) Aubergine b) Aubergine b) Aubergine b) Aubergine b) Aubergine b) Aubergine b) Aubergine c) Avocado c) Avocado c) Avocado c) Avocado d) Beetroot d) Beetroot d) Beetroot d) Beetroot d) Beetroot 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? 5. Which of these is correct? a) Peeing was a competitive a) Peeing was a competitive a) Peeing was a competitive a) Peeing was a competitive a) Peeing was a competitive a) Peeing was a competitive a) Peeing was a competitive a) Peeing was a competitive a) Peeing was a competitive a) Peeing was a competitive a) Peeing was a competitive sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. sport in ancient Greece. b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee b) The ancient Romans used pee to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. to whiten their teeth. c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used c) The ancient Egyptians used pee as a perfume. pee as a perfume. pee as a perfume. pee as a perfume. pee as a perfume. pee as a perfume. d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British d) Pee soup is an ancient British delicacy. delicacy. delicacy. delicacy.

22 MODERN LANGUAGES LANGUAGES I'm multilingual! I'm multilingual! I'm multilingual! I'm multilingual! Huh? Monday Lesson 3+4 Lesson 3+4 Lesson 3+4 Yes, oui, si... I can Yes, oui, si... I can speak English, fran'ais, speak English, fran'ais, espa'ol... espa'ol... speak English, fran'ais, espa'ol... speak English, fran'ais,

23 EIf veryone speaks football. you go on holiday to another country, it is possible to have a game against the locals even if no one understands a word anyone else is saying. In fact, it is possible to be on the same football team as someone and not understand a word they are saying. And this happens quite a lot now in professional football. Top teams have players from many different countries who speak many different languages. Sometimes two players may not have a language in common. So if they are together ? next to each other at dinner, on the subs? bench or on the team bus ? they may not be able to communicate with words at all. When coaches are unable to speak the same language as the players, they will use an interpreter to translate what they are saying in order for their players to understand them. (Eventually players will pick up words of the local language, but learning new words takes time.) In this lesson we're going to look at why there are so many different languages and how they are created. You'll also learn about chickens in Brazil. Let's go! Los geht's! Vamos! Allons-y! Please, please, score a goal! Please, please, score a goal! Please, please, Quoi? Was? Qu'? '

24 SPREAD THE WORD Most scientists think modern humans originated in Africa within the last 200,000 years. These early groups of people did lots of exploring. It is believed that they and their descendants slowly walked out of Africa and settled all over the world. Our earliest ancestors probably grunted and squeaked at each other. From these funny noises emerged spoken language, which is a system of words like the ones we use now. One theory is that the fi rst humans to speak all used the same language, but as they moved from Africa around the world, this early language evolved into other languages, which then changed into even more languages. Language is always changing, as speakers replace old words with new words. If you add too many new words to a language, it becomes a different one! The world now has about 7,000 spoken languages. You can see how much languages change by looking at English over the last few hundred years. Here are some of language expert Mark Forsyth's favourite words that we don't use any more. We love them too ? Alex fudgels all the time!

25 And lots of new words ? which your great-great-great And lots of new words ? which your great-great-great grandparents would never have heard ? have now entered grandparents would never have heard ? have now entered the language: Olinguito Olinguito Emoji Emoji Squee S W W O Q Q C K Z B I Y Y L R R N M M OLD WORDS WHEN AND WHERE MEANING Fudgel 18th century, England To pretend to work when you're not really Gongoozle 1940s, England To stare lazily at a canal and do nothing Groke 19th century, Scotland To look at someone who's eating in the hope they will give you some food Snollygoster 19th century, USA A dishonest politician Wamblecropt 16th century, England To be overcome with indigestion NEW WORDS NEW WORDS MEANING Clickbait A website link that's designed to attract attention and encourage people to read on Emoji A small image used to express an emotion or idea in electronic communication Olinguito A racoon-like animal from South America that was discovered in 2013 Squee A high-pitched squealing sound YOLO Short for 'You Only Live Once', an expression that means you should have fun now and not think about the future

SOUNDS THE SAME In Europe there are about 40 main languages. Many are quite similar to each other. For example, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and Romanian have many words in common because they are all descended from Latin, the language of the ancient Romans. English and German have many similarities, as do Swedish, Norwegian, Danish and Icelandic. Often countries that are close to each other geographically have similar words for the same thing. This is because people living near each other share and borrow words, just as they might trade goods. For example, consider the word 'football'. It was fi rst used in English about fi ve hundred years ago. SOCCER (USA) FUTEBOL (Portugal) THE WORLD OF FOOTBALL

The game of football The game of football didn't exist at that time, didn't exist at that time, didn't exist at that time, so the 'football? referred so the 'football? referred so the 'football? referred to a 'round instrument to play with? using one's foot. to a 'round instrument to play with? using one's foot. But by the late nineteenth century, 'football? meant But by the late nineteenth century, 'football? meant the game we know and love today. As the game became the game we know and love today. As the game became popular around the world, many different countries started popular around the world, many different countries started talking about it and introduced the word 'football? into their languages. But they changed the word their languages. But they changed the word a little bit, so it would fi t with their local rules with their local rules for spelling and for spelling and pronunciation. pronunciation. F'TBOLTI (Iceland) FOOTBALL FOOTBALL (France) (France) FOOTBALL (UK) CALCIO (Italy) (Italy) FUSSBALL (Germany) FOTBAL FOTBAL (Czech Republic) FUTBAL (Slovakia) (Slovakia) PI'KA NO'NA PI'KA NO'NA (Poland) (Poland) VOETBAL (The Netherlands) FOTBOLL (Sweden) FODBOLD (Denmark) (Denmark) JALKAPALLO (Finland) FOOT BALL FOOTBALL (as we know it) F'TBOL F'TBOL (Spain) FUTBALL (Hungary) (Hungary) (Hungary) FUTBOL (Turkey) POD'SFAIRO POD'SFAIRO (Greece) FUDBAL FUDBAL FUDBAL (Serbia) NOGOMET NOGOMET NOGOMET NOGOMET (Croatia) FUTBOL (Belarus, Russia Ukraine)

28 THE ODDBALLS As you can see from the map on the previous page, some countries have their own words for football that look nothing like 'football'. Here are some of the reasons why: Calcio (Italy): Calcio fi orentino was a violent ball game with 27 players per side, originating in the Italian city of Florence in the sixteenth century. Brits founded Genoa, the fi rst Italian football club, in 1893 but the Italian offi cials didn't want to use the foreign word 'football? to name the sport. So they stuck with calcio, from the Italian word calciare, meaning to kick. Calcio fi orentino, now called calcio storico ('historic football'), is still played in summer in Florence. Nogomet (Croatia): Nogomet (Croatia) Nogomet A combination of the Croatian words noga (meaning foot) and meta (meaning target). It was coined in the late 1890s by a linguist called Slavko Rutzner-Radmilovi', who was eating cake in a Zagreb patisserie when out of the window he saw some students kicking a ball around in a park. The term was used interchangeably with football for a while, but the first football club in Zagreb, PNI'K, was founded with nogomet (and not football) in its name. All other clubs in Croatia then adopted nogomet in their name too.

29 Soccer (USA): In the late nineteenth century, Rugby School in England invented a game with an oval ball that allowed kicking and handling, which they called Rugby football. The other game with the round ball, which was organized by the Football Association, was known as Association football. From Rugby we get the abbreviation 'rugger', and from Association we get the word 'soccer'. For a long time in the UK, the words 'football? and 'soccer? were used interchangeably, although 'soccer? is now hardly used. But in the United States they still say 'soccer', since 'football? there means what we call American football. Confusing! Pilka no'na (Poland): The Polish name for football literally means 'ball leggy'. Pilka means ball and no'na is a descriptive word, or adjective, which comes from noga, meaning leg. It was copied from the English term for football ? although incorrectly ? shortly after 1900. It became widely used after the fi rst Polish radio broadcast of a football match in 1929.

TONGUE-TWISTERS TONGUE-TWISTERS Professional football has become such an international game that players now often move country several times in their careers. Sometimes clubs provide interpreters to help players who do not speak the local language. But often footballers learn to speak the lingo. The ones in the table opposite really have the gift of the gab! Top linguist of his football generation is Croatian midfi elder Ivan Rakiti', who as well as speaking EIGHT languages has won La Liga and the Champions League with Barcelona. We interviewed him to fi nd out how he became multi-multi-lingual! My parents spoke Croatian, and I grew up in Switzerland, where many languages are spoken. Now my wife is Spanish and we speak Spanish at home! Communication is important in a team, and I've always wanted to learn the language of the club where I am playing, and also speak to team-mates in their home language. Love / amor / ljubav / liebe / amour. How do you know so many languages, Ivan? What is your favourite word? IVAN, THE TERRIBLY GOOD AT LANGUAGES CROATIAN NEWS FRENCH ITALIAN

31 No, but it is great to be able to speak to people in their mother tongue, especially when they have just arrived at your club. It helps them settle in and feel at home more quickly. I still have a lot of football to play, so am focused on my playing career, but I hope to work in a job with an international profile requiring several languages and travel once I stop playing. A mix of all of them! What language do you dream in? Do your team-mates call you 'The Dictionary'? Will you work as an interpreter when you retire? FOOTBALL SCHOOL TV PLAYER NUMBER OF NUMBER OF LANGUAGES LANGUAGES Ivan Rakiti? (Croatia) 8 Catalan, Croatian, English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, SwissGerman Mikel Arteta (Spain) 7 Basque, Catalan, English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish Gelson Fernandes (Switzerland) 7 English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swiss-German Philippe Senderos (Switzerland) 7 English, French, German, Italian, Serbian, Spanish, Swiss-German Clarence Seedorf (The Netherlands) 6 English, Dutch, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Surinamese

32 WONDERFUL WORLD OF WORDS Languages need to have words for basic everyday things such as hand, table and sun. But sometimes you get amazing words that only exist in one language. Here are some of our favourites ? we wish English had them! Aaargh! My eyes! WOBBLE RUB WORD LANGUAGE REGION MEANING Abanyawoihwarrgahmarneganjginjeng Bininj Gun-wok Northern Australia I cooked the wrong meat for them again Embasan Maguindanao Philippines To take a bath with your clothes on Hanyauku Rukwangali Namibia To walk on warm sand on your tiptoes Ribuytibuy Mundari India and Bangladesh The sound, sight or motion of a big person's buttocks rubbing together as they walk Zhaghzhagh Persian Iraq The chattering of teeth from the cold or from anger

WORDS OF HOPE WORDS OF HOPE Here's a tip for players Here's a tip for players who find learning a second who find learning a second language difficult. Learn language difficult. Learn Esperanto! It is a language Esperanto! It is a language that was invented to be as that was invented to be as simple as possible to learn. simple as possible to learn. Polish doctor Ludwik Zamenhof created Esperanto Polish doctor Ludwik Zamenhof created Esperanto in 1887. He wanted to make it easier for people of in 1887. He wanted to make it easier for people of different nationalities to communicate as he thought different nationalities to communicate as he thought it would make everyone nicer to each other. He called it would make everyone nicer to each other. He called the language Esperanto ? which is Esperanto for 'one the language Esperanto ? which is Esperanto for 'one who hopes'. who hopes'. Many hundreds of thousands of people can speak Many hundreds of thousands of people can speak the language ? at least a little bit. And Esperanto the language ? at least a little bit. And Esperanto even has its own football team, made up of speakers even has its own football team, made up of speakers from Argentina, Brazil, Czech Republic, France, from Argentina, Brazil, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Nepal, Slovakia, Switzerland and Taiwan. Hungary, Nepal, Slovakia, Switzerland and Taiwan. ABCD (EFGH) When it comes to football, different When it comes to football, different languages often use different languages often use different phrases to describe what goes on in the game. Turn goes on in the game. Turn over for our favourite entries from the ABCD (EFGH), which is short for , which is short for Alex and Ben's Classroom Dictionary (Edition For Going Dictionary (Edition For Going on Holiday). Mi amas vin!* * I love you! I love you! I love you! I love you! ABCD (EFGH)

Alex and Ben's Classroom Dictionary Key | = tactic | X = mistake | = technique = technique | = team talk biscotto (Italian for biscuit) ? A match which ends in a result that suits both competing teams, usually a drawn game in the group stages of a tournament. Th e term comes from horse-racing, when horses would be given a biscuit mixed with banned substances ? to make them either faster or slower ? with the purpose of fi xing the outcome. brilstand (Dutch for glasses stand) ? A goalless game, since 0'0 looks like glasses. cola de vaca (Spanish for cow's tail) ? A trick that involves stopping the ball and then changing direction. Skilful players like Lionel Messi and Gareth Bale are experts at doing this, oft en by keeping the ball close to their instep and leaving their marker behind. Fahrstuhlmannschaft (German for elevator team) ? A yo-yo team, describing a side that regularly gets relegated and then promoted. SCOREBOARD HOME AWAY 90 MINS

(Edition For Going on Holiday) 35 frango (Brazilian Portuguese for chicken) ? One of the most common phrases used in Brazilian football, it means a goal that is the result of an embarrassing mistake by the goalkeeper. X hacer un sombrero (Spanish for to make a hat) ? Chipping the ball over an opponent's head and running around to retrieve it. jisatsu-ten (Japanese for suicide point) ? An own goal, dating back to when ancient Japanese warriors, known as samurai, would commit harakiri, or kill themselves, rather than suff er the shame of being captured and tortured by enemies. Each player on the pitch takes responsibility for their actions ? but they do not die if they score past their own goalkeeper!

Alex and Ben's Classroom Dictionary Key | = tactic = tactic = tactic | X = mistake | = technique = technique | = team talk = team talk korokoro (Japanese for the sound of something rolling slowly across the ground, like a heavy wheelbarrow pushed across a fi eld or an acorn rolling into a pond) ? A penalty rolled in slowly to the corner where the goalkeeper does not dive. lanterne rouge lanterne rouge (French for red lantern) red lantern ? Th e team at the Th e team at the bottom of the table, bottom of the table, named for the named for the last carriage on last carriage on a train in France a train in France which has a red which has a red light at the back. light at the back. Th e same term is Th e same term is used in German, used in German, rote Laterne. rote Laterne. Notbremse (German for emergency brake) ? A professional foul, when a player deliberately fouls an opponent to prevent a clear goal-scoring opportunity. Th e goal-scoring opportunity. Th e punishment is a red card. pipoqueiro (Brazilian Portuguese for popcornseller) ? A player who avoids taking risks and doesn't play well in important games.

(Edition For Going on Holiday) 37 saut de grenouille (French for frog jump) ? When a player keeps the ball between both feet and jumps over the leg of an opponent. In South America it is also known as the Cuauhteminha, or Blanco Hop, aft er the Mexican player Cuauhtemoc Blanco, who pulled off the trick in a 1998 World Cup match against South Korea. vuurpijl (Dutch for (Dutch for rocket) ? A defensive clearance A defensive clearance when the ball does not when the ball does not go towards the other go towards the other goal but is hit straight goal but is hit straight up into the air. up into the air. zona Cesarini (Italian for last few minutes of a game) ? Injury time, named aft er Juventus winger Renato Cesarini, who struck a very late winning goal for Italy against Hungary in 1931. One week later, Ambrosiana-Inter beat Roma with a late goal which led the commentator to refer back to the Cesarini goal. In time, zona Cesarini became the popular term for a late goal.

38 LYNN GO Languages spoken: Languages spoken: 23 Languages understood: Languages understood: Languages understood: 15 Sign languages Sign languages learned: Sign languages Sign languages Sign languages understood: understood: Birthplace: Birthplace: Chatsworth, England Chatsworth, England Supports: Supports: Torquay United (UK) Fave player: Fave player: Petr 'ech Torquay United (UK) Petr 'ech Torquay United (UK) Trick: Trick: Talks a good game LINGO BINGO * There are 7,000 spoken languages today. * 1 language dies out every fortnight. * Languages can have anything from 11 to 144 distinctive sounds. English has about 44. * There are only 3 vowels in Greenlandic. * There are 121 different sign languages. FRENCH GREEN-LANDIC Bonas paroli 'Hola! Salaam! Bonjour! Hi! Ciao! Guten Tag! (Esperanto for paroli (Esperanto for paroli 'It's good to talk!') (Esperanto for 'It's good to talk!') (Esperanto for STAR PUPIL STAR PUPIL Stats Bonas paroli (Esperanto for

39 MODERN LANGUAGES MODERN LANGUAGES QUIZ QUIZ 1. What does Esperanto 1. What does Esperanto 1. What does Esperanto 1. What does Esperanto 1. What does Esperanto mean? mean? a) I am desperate a) I am desperate a) I am desperate for the loo. for the loo. for the loo. for the loo. for the loo. b) One who hopes b) One who hopes b) One who hopes b) One who hopes b) One who hopes c) I like playing football. c) I like playing football. c) I like playing football. d) One who speaks d) One who speaks d) One who speaks d) One who speaks d) One who speaks ten languages ten languages ten languages ten languages ten languages 2. Translate the 2. Translate the 2. Translate the following emoji following emoji following emoji into the most into the most into the most likely sentence: likely sentence: likely sentence: likely sentence: likely sentence: a) I just swatted a fl y. a) I just swatted a fl y. a) I just swatted a fl y. b) Praise the Lord! b) Praise the Lord! b) Praise the Lord! b) Praise the Lord! b) Praise the Lord! b) Praise the Lord! c) Well done! c) Well done! c) Well done! c) Well done! c) Well done! c) Well done! c) Well done! d) My hands are d) My hands are d) My hands are d) My hands are d) My hands are leaking water. leaking water. leaking water. leaking water. leaking water. 3. What is the literal 3. What is the literal 3. What is the literal translation of the name translation of the name translation of the name translation of the name translation of the name of Spanish midfi elder of Spanish midfi elder of Spanish midfi elder of Spanish midfi elder of Spanish midfi elder Juan Mata in English? Juan Mata in English? Juan Mata in English? Juan Mata in English? Juan Mata in English? a) John Mates a) John Mates a) John Mates b) John Matters b) John Matters b) John Matters b) John Matters b) John Matters c) John Kills c) John Kills c) John Kills c) John Kills c) John Kills d) John Scores d) John Scores d) John Scores 4. In German, if you are 4. In German, if you are fernweh, you are: , you are: a) Longing to go to a place a) Longing to go to a place far away far away b) Full after eating too b) Full after eating too much food much food c) Alone in c) Alone in the woods the woods d) Always asking d) Always asking too many questions too many questions 5. What is the translation of 5. What is the translation of the Italian word cucchiaio, used to describe a used to describe a penalty that is lofted penalty that is lofted down the middle of down the middle of the goal? the goal? a) Doughnut b) Gift c) Spoon d) Curly pasta TOILET 1 KM 1 KM

40 You remind me of a ball. You remind me of a ball. You remind me of a ball. Yes, I'm good Yes, I'm good under pressure! under pressure! I meant round and kickable! I meant round and kickable! And, as usual, GREAT And, as usual, GREAT at inflating your at inflating your own abilities... PHYSICS PHYSICS Monday Lesson 5 Lesson 5

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